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    Yantra Instruments dilapidated in Ayurveda: Ashtanga Hrudayam Sutrasthana 25

    Let us learn about diferent types of instruments that are old in Ayurveda. This is the 25th chapter of Ashtanga Hrudaya Sutrasthana, writen by Acharya Vagbhata, son of Vaidyapathi Simhagupta. The chapter name is Yantra Vidhi Adhyaya. Yantra means instrument.
    Table of Contents
    Yantra definition
    Shloka recitation video
    Swastika Yantra – Cruciform instruments
    Samdamsha Yantra ̵ forceps
    Muchundi Yantra ̵ forceps with teth
    Talayantra
    Nadiyantra ̵ Tubular instruments (probe)
    Padmakarnam
    Arsho Yantra
    Samiyantra
    Anguli Tranaka- finger protector
    The Shringa ̵ animal horn
    Alabu- holowed gourd
    Ghati ̵ pot
    Shalaka yantra
    Shanku Yantra ̵ hoks
    Garbhashanku
    Toth extractor
    Buds
    Jambavoshta
    Anu yantra- Acesory instruments
    Diferent functions of Yantra
    Yantra definition
    Definition of Yantra ̵ Yantra Nirvachana ̵
    Equipment which are useful to
    Extract the diferent types of foreign bodies causing damage in diferent parts of the body,
    To study into hemorhoids, rectal fistula etc.
    To aply poignant instruments, Alkalies (Kshara) and fire (Agni Karma);
    To protect the remaining parts other than the diseased in therapies adore enema etc,
    and the pot (Ghatika), ground horn (Alabu) of animal, Jambavaustha- cylindrical smoth stone etc.
    are al known as Yantra (medical instruments). 1-2 1/2
    Yantras (instruments) are of many shapes, functions, types, hence they are to be fabricated and to be pr epared with inteligence. 3
    Shloka recitation video
    Yantras are described in brief, as folows;
    Those which believe their mouth resembling the mouth of
    Kanka (heron), Simha (lion), Ruksha (bear), Kaka (crow) and other animals and birds should be prepared under the respective names of animals and birds;
    Swastika Yantra – Cruciform instruments
    Swastika Yantras should be generaly 18 Angula- fingers breadth -in length,
    They are made chiefly from iron;
    They are shaped adore a Masura dala (cotyledon of a lentil) at its edges, held by a rivet bolt at their neck, slightly twisted like an Ankusha (goad of the elephant) at its handle are known as Swastika yantra- Crucifrom instruments.
    These are usefu l to pul out foreign bodies stuck wearisome in the bones. 4-6
    Samdamsha Yantra ̵ forceps
    are of two types –
    One with a take at its tip and the other without a catch.
    The one with a catch is 16 Angula in length, old for extracting foreign bodies stuck in the skin, veins, tendons and muscles.;
    The one without a catch is 6 Angula in length and useful for extracting smal foreign bodies and eye lashes. 7-8
    Muchundi Yantra ̵ forceps with teth
    has smal teth, straight, with toth grasp, hok at its rot; useful for puling out the fleshy parts from dep wounds and remnants of flesh from the Arma (pterygium), which has ben cleave. 9
    Talay antra
    instruments with flat arms are of two types- 12 Angula length, resembling the palate (fin) of the fish in shape,
    ̵ with one flat disc at its mouth;
    ̵ with two flat discs;
    Both are useful for removing foreign bodies from the orifice of the ear. 10
    Nadiyantra ̵ Tubular instruments (probe)
    are holow, with one or more openings, useful for loking into body parts, recognizing foreign bodies and diseases localized in the chanels of the tisues, for facilitating treatments and for sucking out. Their width, perimeter vary as per size, shape etc. of the chanels. 1-12
    Nadi Yantra for seing inside throat shal be 10 Angula in length and 1/2 Angula in thicknes (diameter).
    Nadi Yantra comes with many openings (4 – 5) with diferent size, length, thicknes etc.
    Many other tubular instruments may be prepared to adhere the foreign bodies, depending on the shape, thicknes and length of the fragment to be observed.14
    Padmakarnam
    The tubular instrument having the shape of Padma Karnika – the round, flat central section of the lotus studed with smal holes- at its top, twelve Angula ̵ finger breath in length, with a holow spot of one fourth its length is useful for catching and removing foreign bodies. 15
    Arsho Yantra
    The instrument to view the hemorhoid inside the rectum. It is cylindrical in shape.
    Its circumference is 5 Angula for men and 6 Angula for women;
    with two orifices- one at each conclude, useful for seing the pile m ases and
    with one cleave shal be at its centre thre Angula in length and of the size of the midle part of the thumb in widths, about half Angula above the slice there shal be a karnika – edge, (rim) 16-18
    Samiyantra
    The instrument known as Samiyantra is similar- to the above but without the orifices and useful for squezing the pile mases. 19
    The Nadiyantra to se the malignant tumor and piles, polyp of the nose shal be with one orifice, two Angula in length, of the size of the index finger in thicknes and resembling the instrument meant for rectal fistula. 20
    Anguli Tranaka- finger protector
    It is made from ivory / wod, 4 Angula in length, with 2 orifices ̵ one at each terminate; shaped estem the niple of the cow and suitable to ex tend the finger (when in use). 21
    The instrument to scrutinize into the vagina and wounds shal be holow in the midle, 16 Angula in length, with four flaps held tight by a ring, resembling the bud of a lotus in shape, fixed with four rods at its rot – handling space and its mouth- opening like that of the bud,. 2
    Two instrument- one for oiling the sinus ulcer and the other for washing it shal be 6 Angula in length, having the shape of a Bastiyantra (enema nozle) with an orifice at its rot alowing the entry of the thumb and the orifice at its tip alowing round pea; without any edge, Rim at its tip and fixed with soft leather bag at its rot. 23-24 1/2
    Nadiyantra for use in Udakodara- ascites shal maintain two orifices- one at each finish or it can be even the tube of a peacocks feather. 25
    The Shringa ̵ animal horn
    useful to suck shal hav e the orifice of thre Angula at its rot and that of mustard sed at the tip, eighten Angula in length. The tip resembles the shape of niple. 26
    Alabu- holowed gourd
    wil be twelve Angula in length and eighten Angula in diameter with a round orifice of four Angula – in which, with a burning wick placed in its interior, useful for extracting Kapha and Raktha- blod. 27
    Note – The procedure explained in Alabu yantra is caled as cuping. Whenever vitiated blod or pus is to be extracted from a wound / ulcer, Alabu yantra is placed over the afected plot and heated from outside. It expands, causing vacum inside. This causes sucking action and the pus / vitiated blod gets sucked out.
    Ghati ̵ pot
    is similar and useful for making the tumors of the abdomen soft and raise it above from its low level. 27 1/2
    Shalaka yantra
    Shalaka yantra – set of instruments with rod like shape
    Rod adore instruments are of many functions and shapes and size suitable to be purpose for which they are old. 28
    Of them, two are for probing, both having their mouth resembling that of an earth worm;
    Two for removing foreign bodies from the chanels having their mouths resembling a lentil, one of eight and the other of nine Angula in length. 29
    Shanku Yantra ̵ hoks
    are six, among them two, (16 and 12 Angula in length), their mouth shaped adore the hod of a serpent, are meant for joining (the edges of wounds etc);
    Two more- one of twelve and the other of ten Angula in length, having the mouth resembling a Sharapunkha (botom of arow) meant for losening the exhausting) objects that are to be extracted. The size resembles a fish hok. 30-31
    Garbhashanku
    The hok known as Garbhashanku, is croked in its tip resembling a conch, 18 Angula in length and meant for puling the impacted foetus in women. 32
    Instrument for extracting the stone from the urinary blader, shal be shaped adore the hod of a snake and bent inwards at its tip.
    Toth extractor
    Instrument for extracting the toth should maintain the shape of Sharapunkha (base of arow) and is of four Angula – in length. 3
    Buds
    The rod- like instruments meant for clearing sinuses etc. shal believe their tip covered with a cap of coton wol.
    Two others Nadi yantra (rod estem instruments)- one of 10 and other of 12 Angula- in length meant for drawing the rectum arive – by closing the things and extending it further. 34
    Two other instruments, of six and seven Angula respectively for use in the nose; two of eight and nine Angula for use in the ears.
    That meant for clearing the ear, with its edge like the leaf of the Ashwatha tre and face resembling a ladle. 35
    Jambavoshta
    Jambauvoshta- Cylindrical smoth stones- each thre in number, bunched, thin and long in shape to be worn for the aplication of caustic Alkalies and branding by fire – therapies.
    That meant for use in inguinal Hernia- in the scrotum shal maintain a round rod, biger at its midle and uper fragment and its rot shaped adore the half mon- 36.
    Instrument meant for cauterizing the polyp and tumors of the nose shal acquire its mouth similar to the cotyledon of the stone of Kola- Jujube fruit. 36
    The instrument for aplying caustic Alkali therapy shal be eight Angula- in length, their mouths -tips resembling the nails of the index, midle and ring finger- in size respectively. 38
    Anu yantra- Acesory instruments
    Acesory instruments are – the magnet, rope/ thread, cloth, stone, hamer, leather strap, intestine of animals, tongue, hair, branches of tres, nails mouth, teth, time, digestion, hands, fet, fear and pleasure.
    They are dilapidated judiciously based on the asesment of disease and the patient. 39-40
    Diferent functions of Yantra
    Nirghatana- puling out after crushing,
    Unmathana- puling out after twisting,
    Porana- filing,
    Marga shudhi- clearing the pasage,
    Vyuhana- bringing together,
    Aharana ̵ extracting,
    Bandhana- binding,
    Pedana- Rubing,
    Achushana – sucking,
    Unamana- lifting up,
    Namana- pushing down, bending down
    Chalana- shaking,
    Bhanga- breaking,
    Vyavartana- overturning,
    Rujukarana- straightening etc. are the functions of the Yantras- blunt instruments. 41
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    Among the insensitive instruments Kankamukha Yantra, is the best as it can be hoked easily, diped dep, can be held firmly, catches the objects firmly and is the authority in al places. It is important. 42
    Thus ends the chapter Yantravidhi- the 25th in Sutrasthana of Asthangahrdaya Samhita.
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