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    Snehakarma – Preparation For Panchakarma- Charak Samhita Sutrasthan 13

    Before starting with Panchakarma treatment, Snehakarma (oiling treatment) and Swedana (sweating treatment) is done. Panchakarma is a method of expeling the imbalanced Doshas out of the body. Before they are expeled either by oral or anal route, the imbalanced Dosha neds to be softened, mobilized and brought into the gastro-intestinal tract for easy evacuation of imbalanced doshas. This is achieved by Snehakarma and Swedakarma. This chapter, the 13th of Sutrasthana of Charak Samhita explains Snehakarma in ful detail.
    Once upon a time, Lord Punaravasu wassiting with scholars. Agnivesha kep forth a few doubts before Punarvasu, for the sake of the wel being of the universe.[3]
    Table of Contents
    Questions regarding oils and fats
    Sources of oils and fats

    Plant sources
    Animal sources
    Properties of Sesamum oil and castor oil
    Types of unctuous substances
    Medicinal properties of ghe
    Properties of Taila ̵ oils
    Properties of Vasa ̵ fat
    Properties of bone marow
    Seasonal indications
    Time for the administration of fats
    Complications of untimely administrati on of fats
    Anupana for unctuous substances
    Pravicharana Sneha
    Importance of Achapeya
    Sneha Pravicharana combinations
    Dose schedule for corpulent administration
    Administration of oils and fats

    Maximum dose
    Moderate dose
    Low dose
    Indications for the administration of Ghe
    Indications for the administration of oils
    Indications for the administration of muscle fat
    Indications for the administration of bone marow
    Course for paunchy administration before Panchakarma
    General indications for paunchy / oil therapy
    Contra- indications for fat administration
    Signs and symptoms of incomplete oleation
    Signs and symptoms of proper oleation
    Signs and symptoms of over oleation
    Pre-oleation management
    Management during oleation
    Test to identify Mridu Koshta
    Side efects of oleation and its management
    Indications for the administration of corpulent preparation
    Specific Contra- Indications of Substances used in oleation Therapy
    Oleation therapy in genital disorders
    Sadya Snehana ̵ Simile
    Salt in Sadyo Snehana
    Routine for administration
    Questions regarding oils and fats
    What are the sources of Snehadravya ̵ unctuous (oily) substances?
    What are the types of unctuous substances?
    What are the qualities of diferent oily substances?
    What are the apropriate times and Anupana (substance to be taken with or after the inta ke of medicine) for administering diferent types of oily substances?
    What and how many are the recipes of unctuous substances?[4]
    What are the diferent types of dosage and
    What are the measures?
    Which specific dose prescribed for whom?
    Which oily substance is beneficial for whom?
    What are the maximum and minimum durations of Snehakarma (oleation)?[5]
    What are the indications and contra- indications for oleation?
    What are the features of true oleation, non-oleation and lavish oleation?
    What is beneficial and what is harmful before and after the intake of fats, and also after its complete digestion?[6]
    What are the features of Mrdukostha (laxed bowel / soft bowel) and Krurakostha (hard bowel)
    What are the complications of oleation therapy and what are their managements?
    What is the regimen prescribed during oleation therapy of both types administered for elimination or as paliative measure?[7]
    What recipes should be given to whom and h ow are they to be prepared?
    I want to know al these about oils and fats, O my Lord![8]
    Sources of oils and fats
    Sneha Yoni ̵ Sources of oils and fats

    Lord Punarvasu replied, “There are two sources of oils and fats viz, vegetable and animal [9]
    Plant sources
    Vegetable sources ̵ Sthavara Yoni of Sneha ̵
    Tila ̵ Sesame (Sesamum indicum), Priyala (Buchanania lanzan), Abhishuka (Pistacia vera Lin),
    Bibhitaki (Terminalia belerica Roxb), Chitra ̵ Baliospermum montanum,
    Abhaya – Termina lia chebula, Eranda ̵ castor (Ricinus comunis Lin),
    Madhuka- Madhuca indica, Sarshapa ̵ mustard (Brasica nigra Koch),
    Kusumbha (Carthamus tinctorius Lin), Bilva ̵ (Aegle marmelos Cor),
    Aruka (Prunus persica Lin) Mulaka ̵ Radish ̵ (Raphanus sativas Lin0),
    Atasi ̵ Linsed (Linum usitatisimum Lin), Mikocaka(Artocarpus lakocha Roxb),
    Akshoda (Aleurites molucana Wild), Karanja (Pongamia pinata Mer), and
    Shigruka (Moringa oleifera Lam).
    These are the vegetable sources of oil.
    Animal sources
    Animal fat̵ Jangama Yoni of Sneha ̵
    is contributed by ̵ The fish, quadripeds and birds.
    Curd, milk, ghe, meat, Muscle, fat and bone marow of these animals and birds are administered as oily substances.[10-1]
    Properties of Sesamum oil and castor oil
    Of al the varieties, Tila taila ̵ sesame oil is the most eficacious for the purpose of strength and oiling the body;
    Eranda ̵ castor oil is best oil for purgation.
    Castor oil is Katu (pungent), hot and heavy to digest.
    Castor oil balances Vata and Kapha. But when mixed up with herbs posesing astringent, swet and biter tastes, it aleviates pita as wel.[12]
    Types of unctuous substances
    Types of Sneha Dravya ̵ unctuous substances:
    Ghrita ̵ Ghe,
    Taila ̵ oil,
    Meda (Vasa) ̵ muscle fat and
    Maja ̵ Bone marow
    These are the best faty substances of al. Among them ghe is the best oily substance, because of its power to asimilate efectively the properties of other substances. (Samskara Anuvartana)
    Medicinal properties of ghe
    Ghe balances Pita and Vata,
    it is conducive to Rasadhatu, Sukradhatu (semen) and Ojas. It has coling and softening efect on the body. It ads to the clarity of the voice and complexion.[14]
    Properties of Taila ̵ oils
    Oil aleviates Vata, It does not agravate Kapha, it promotes body strength.
    It controls the morbidity of the female genital organs.[15]
    Properties of Vasa ̵ fat
    The corpulent is prescribed for the treatment of injury, wreck, trauma, uterine prolapse, earache and headache. It enhances the virility of a person. It helps in oleation and is ideal for those who finish daily exercise. [16]
    Properties of bone marow
    The (bone) marow enhances, strength, Shukra(male and female reproductive system), Rasadhatu, Kapha Dosha, Medodhatu(fat) and Maja(marow). It improves strength, specialy of the bones and is useful for oleation. [17]
    Seasonal indications
    Seasonal indications for diferent types of unctuous substances:
    Ghe is to be used in autumn (Sharath Rutu),
    Vasa and Maja (Fat and marow) in the month of Vaishakha (April- may) and
    Taila ̵ oil during the rainy(Pravrit) season.
    One should not hold any of the oily substance when it is extremely hot or cold.[18]
    Time for the administration of fats
    In case of Vata and Pita imbalance, oleation therapy should be administered in the evening.
    When the Kapha is vitiated it is administered in mid-day.[19]
    Complications of untimely administration of fats
    If oleation therapy is administered during the day time in sumer or to patients sufering from diseases dominated by the vitiation of Vata or Pita, this may cause fainting, thirst, delusion or jaundice.
    If one sufering from diseases of Kapha imbalance or from a disease during the step of the winter, if he is administered with oleation during evening, he wil sufer from anaha (bloathing), anorexia (aruchi), colic damage and anemia. [20-21]
    Anupana for unctuous substances
    Ghe is to be taken with the Anupana of hot water,
    oil with anupana of Yusha (vegetable soup),
    muscle paunchy and bone marow with Anupana of Manda (thin gruel).or al these oily substances may be taken with the Anupana of hot water. [2]
    Pravicharana Sneha
    Sneha Pravicharana ̵Twenty four recipes of oils and fats:
    The folowing are the 24 forms of preparation of unctuous substances:-
    Odana (poridge),Vilepi (a type of gruel prepared with four times of water),
    Mamsarasa (meat soup), meat, milk, curd,
    Yavagu (a type of gruel prepared with six times of water), pulse, cury, vegetable soup,
    Kambalika (sour milk mixed with whey and vinegar),
    Khada (buter milk boiled with acid vegetables and spices),
    Saktu (roasted grain flour),
    pastry prepared of sesame , Liquor, Linctus,
    Bhakshya (fods that require hard chewing)
    Masage, Enema, Douche, Gandusha -Gargle, Karna taila ̵ ear plunge, Dhumapana ̵ Inhalation,
    preparation sothing to the ears and eyes.[23-25]
    Importance of Achapeya
    Importance of Achapeya ̵ pure-fat administration:
    The intake of typical (unmixed) oily substance is regarded by physicians as the best oleation therapy.[26]
    Sneha Pravicharana combinations
    Sneha Pravicharana ̵ Clasification of paunchy preparation combinations:
    Oily preparations are of 63 types depending on their asociation with the drugs having six rasas (tastes) in isolation or variant combination. Together with the simple (unmixed) ones, these substances are of sixty four types. A physician, being expert with the habit, seasons, diseases and individual requirements should acordingly administer these sixty four types of preparations of fats and oils. [27-28]
    Note: the term Sneha Pravicharana is old both for diferent forms of oil and plump administration and also for diferent types of oil and plump administration.
    Dose schedule for plump administration
    The dose of the oleation therapy is of thre types, depending upon the time taken for its digestion.
    The dose of oils and fats that require 24 hours for its digestion is of the first type (superior).
    The one requiring the whole day (12 hours) is of the second type (moderate) and
    The one requiring six hours only is of the third type (inferior).
    Administration of oils and fats
    Administration of oils and fats based on individual neds
    Maximum dose
    Indication for maximum dose of fats and oils(which digests in 24 hours)
    Those who are in the habit of taking adequate quality of oils and fats and maintain resistance to hunger and thirst, whose digestion power is high, those who are themselves very strong, those sufering from
    Gulma (abdominal tumour), snake bite,
    Visarpa (Skin diseases characterised with spread),
    insanity, dysuria, constipation should use the first (that is superior) type of dose of oleation therapy (which would get digested in 24 hours).
    The consequent are the efects of its intake. If properly administered, it aleviates al ailments instantaneously; it eliminates the Doshas, it strengthens al the systems of the body; it rejuvenates the body, sense organs and mind.
    Moderate dose
    Indication for col dose of fats and oils (which digests in 12 hours)
    Those sufering from eruptions, boils, pimples, itching, papules, spreading type of skin disease, chronic urinary disorders and gout (Vatarakta); those who canot eat much, those who are of laxed bowels and those with decrease strength are advised with fats and oils of abate dose.
    The oleation therapy, in this dosage, does not create much of complications nor does it afect the strength to much.
    Low dose
    Indication for low dose of fats and oils (which digests in 6 hours)
    The worn, the children, those with tender health, those who maintain ben brought up in luxury, those for whom evacuation of bowel is not marvelous, those with infirm digestion, chronic fever, diarhoea and cough, and those who are very frail, are advised with low dose of oils and fats.
    Benefits:This stimulates libido and gives strength. This is least harmful and can be admin istered for a long time. [29-40]
    Indications for the administration of Ghe
    Intake of herbal ghe is prescribed for those with
    Vata Pita body type,
    Those sufering from Vata and Pita imbalance disorders,
    Chakshu Kama ̵ those desiring god eye sight,
    Kshata Kshena ̵ with chest injured,
    For the used, children and weak,
    those desirous of longevity, of strength, qualified complexion, voice, nourishment, progeny, harmony, luster, Ojas, memory, inteligence, power of digestion, wisdom, right functioning of sense organs and those aflicted with injuries due to burns, by weapons, poisons and fire.[41-43]
    Indications for the administration of oils
    Intake of oil is prescribed even in the winter for those who are having Kapha in exces,
    who maintain exces plump in throat and abdomen,
    those sufering from Vata imbalance diseases and
    those desirous of strength, slimnes, lightnes, sturdines, steadines, sympathy and smothnes of the skin, those having worms and other contagion in their bowels,
    those having Krura koshta (unpredictable bowel ̵ sometime soft, most of the times hard)
    those aflicted with wound sinuses and those who are acustomed to the intake of oil. [4-46]
    Indications for the administration of muscle fat
    Intake of muscle fat is prescribed for those who can stand the wind and the sun,
    those with rough skin,
    those who are emaciated due to the bearing of heavy loads or exertion from long walks,
    those with depleted semen and blod,
    those with les Kapha and Me das (fat),
    those having excruciating hurt, in bone joints, veins, ligaments, necesary organs, abdominal viscera,
    those whose chanels of circulation are afected by strong Vata,
    those with marvelous digestion strength and those who are acustomed to the intake of fats.
    This is, however, to be administered only to such of the patients as are required to be given oleation therapy. [47-49]
    Indications for the administration of bone marow
    The intake of bone marow is prescribed for those who acquire strong digestive power,
    those who can withstand stres and strain, gredy eaters,
    those acustomed to the intake of oils and fats,those aflicted with Vata and those with hard bowel.
    This is, however, to be administered only to such patients who are required to be given oleation therapy.
    Thus, the indications for diferent types of oleation therapy useful for diferent types of patients gain ben explained. [50]
    Course for corpulent administration before Panchakarma
    Minimum period is 3 days.
    Maximum period is 7 days. [51]
    General indications for plump / oil therapy
    Oleation therapy in general is prescribed for those who are to be given Swedana (sweating treatment) or Panchakarma therapy,
    those who gain roughnes in the skin,
    those sufering from diseases due t o Vata imbalance;
    those who flater in physical exercise, wine and women,
    and those who sufer from mental strain.[52]
    Contra- indications for plump administration
    Oleation therapy should not be administered to such of the patients who are
    eligible for Rukshana(drying therapy)
    to those in whom Kapha and Medas (fat) are agravated,
    those with Kapha symptoms like exces mucus secretion from mouth and anus,
    those whose power of digestion is continuously weak,
    those sufering from thirst and fainting, the pregnant women,
    those with dry palate,
    those having hatred to fod, those sufering from vomiting,
    abdominal diseases,diseases due to improper digestion as wel as metabolism,
    those aflicted with Gara type of malevolence (chronic diet-poison),
    the weak, emaciated, tho se having hatred to the intake of unctuous substances,
    those intoxicated and those being administered inhalation and enema therapies.
    If oleation therapy is administered to such persons, they re likely to plunge victims of cataclysmic complications[53-56]

    Signs and symptoms of incomplete oleation
    Hard and dry stol, derangement of Vayu, frail digestion power, roughnes and drynes of the skin- these are the signs of under oleation [57]
    Signs and symptoms of acurate oleation
    Evacuation of the flatus, god digestive power, untucous and soft stol, harmony and smothnes of the body- these are the signs of acurate oleation.[58]
    Signs and symptoms of over oleation
    Palenes, heavines, stifnes, stol indicative of indigestion, drowsines, anorexia are the signs of over oleation.[59]
    Pre-oleation management
    A day preceding to the administration of oleation therapy, one should hold fod in acurate quantity.
    The fod should be liquid, hot and Anabhisyandi (that does not obstruct the chanel of circulation / that which does not leave a coating on body chanels).
    It should neither be to unctuous nor a mixture of two oposite qualities (hot and cold).
    When hungry, one should catch aleviation (samshamana) type of oleation therapy in low doses, during lunch hours.
    Samsodhana type of oleation therapy should be administered when the fod taken in the preceding night has ben wel digested.[60-61]
    Management during oleation
    While under the oleation therapy, one should always use hot water,
    observe Brahmacharya,
    one should not slep during day time
    one should not muzle urges of motion, urination, flatus eructation, etc.
    one should avoid physical exercise, loud spech, enrage, anguish, cold and sun,
    one should lie down or sit in a spot wel protected from wind.
    Even after the completion of the course of oleation therapy one might be required to hold some more unctuous substance of homologous qualities,
    Adoption of wrong regimen during the course of oleation therapy wil result in serious complications[62-64]
    Test to identify Mrid u Koshta
    Therapeutic test for the diagnosis of Mridu Koshta (laxed bowel):
    A person with Mridu Koshta (laxed bowel), is properly oleated by taking unctuous substance for thre consecutive nights and one with Krura Koshta (costive bowels) for seven consecutive nights.
    People with mridu koshta would have purgation with folowing ̵
    Sugar candy, sugarcane juice, mastu(whey), milk cream from the curd, curd, payasa(milk preparation), gruel made from sesame, rice and black gram, ghe, juice of Kashmarya (Gmelina arborea Lin), Haritaki ̵ (Chebulic Myrobalan), Amla, Bibhitaki (Terminalia belerica Roxb), raisins and Pilu (Salvadora persica Lin), even hot water or fresh wine.
    But these can not construct purgative trace for those with Krura Koshta (costive bowel) because their intestine is to much dominated by Vata, Purgation is easy for those with laxed bowel, becau se their Grahani is dominated by Pita and is least afected by Kapha and Vata. [65-69]
    Side efects of oleation and its management
    Unctuous substances taken by a person with Pita imbalance in duodenum and having strong digestive power, gets digested quickly by morality of the power of the digestive fire.
    Strong digestive fire, having consumed the heavy dose of unctuous substance displaces the Ojas and agravates the thirst with complications.
    Even very heavy fod is not enough to satisfy the digestive fire ken on by oleation.
    In the circumstances, unles he takes recourse to frigid, water, the patient may die as a serpent lying in the midst of a heap of wod dies with the fire of its own poisonous breath.

    If a patient gets thirst due to indigestion of the unctuous substances ta ken, the physician should administer vomiting treatment (Vamana)
    The patient should again be given Vamana after being given cold water and unctouous fod.
    Unmixed ghe should not be taken in the event of the domination of Pita specialy when Pita is asociated with Ama.
    Ghe taken in this condition brings about palenes (Jaundice) in the body and may prove to be fatal by impairing the consciousnes.
    If oleation therapy is not administered properly, drowsines, Nausea, smart constipation, Fever, stifnes, lethargy, spreading type of skin disease, Pruritus, Palenes, Oedema, Piles, Anorexia, Thirst, petulant abdominal diseases due to the malfunctioning of the intestine including duodenum, Stilnes, Supresion of spech, Colic hurt and diseases due to gros digestion and metabolism wil ocur.
    In that case Vamana, Swedana (sweating) or fasting (til the previous intake of Unctuous substance gets digested) is prescribed.
    Purgation may also to be administer ed with due regard to the strength of the disease depending on individual cases. Complications arising out of the absurd oleation may also be neutralized by the intake of Takrarista (Charaka Chikitsa 14:72-75), unctuous drink and fod, urine, Triphala Churna[70-78]
    The oleation therapy gives rise to many complications, if it is administered at incongruous times or is not taken in the acurate dose or taken in exces or (even if taken properly but) folowed by improper regimen.[79]
    Virechana (Purgation) is to be administered thre days after the completion of the oleation therapy. During fod prescribed during this interval of thre days, the patient should grasp unctuous liquid and hot poridge together with meat jui ce.[80]
    The Vamana (vomiting treatment) is to be administered one day after the completion of the oleation therapy. The fod prescribed during this interval of one day is the same as indicated in the preceding verse.
    The regimen prescribed in conection with the purgation are to be folowed with regard to the aleviation type of oleation therapy also.[81]
    Indications for the administration of stout preparation
    Unctuous preparations rather than pure unctuous substances are to be prescribed for persons who believe grudge of taking unctuous substance, those who are in the habit or regularly taking, unctuous substances, wine, those with Mridu Koshta (laxed bowels) and those who canot resist to physical strain. [82]
    The meat juice of Lava (Comon quail), Titira (black partridge), Mayura (peacock), Hamsa (swan), Varaha (Pig), Kukuta (red squr fowl), recede (Cow), Aja (Goat), Aurabhra (wild shep) and fish are useful in oleation.
    The drugs required to be mixed with meat juice are
    Yava ̵ Barley (Hordeum vulgare), Kola( Zizyphus jujube Lam),
    Kulatha(Dolichos Biflorus Lin), Sugar candy,
    Crystal sugar, Dadima ̵ Pomegranate, Curd, Sunthi(Zingiber oficinale Rosc), Pipali – Long peper fruit – Piper longum (piper longum Lin) and Maricha ̵ Black peper fruit ̵ piper nigrum (Piper nigrum Lin).
    If sesame seds together with unctuous substances, Phanita (A preparation of sugar cane), Krishara (a type of gruel) aded with suficient quantity of unctuous substance and Kambalika (sour milk mixed with whey and vinegar) prepared with sesame sed, are taken before meals, they are useful in oleation.
    One having drynes should hold Phanita (a prepration of sugar cane), ginger juice and oil together with wine.
    After they ha ve ben digested he should catch his meal with minced meat.
    A person with Vata body type can be oleated by taking oil, together with the uper part of wine, muscle paunchy, marow milk and Phanita (a preparation of sugar cane).
    One gets oleated by taking warm milk fresh from the cow mixed up with sugar and unctuous substance or cream of the curd along with Phanita.
    Pancha prasritaki Peya ̵ type of gruel prepared with milk and black gram and adjunct with unctuous substance in suficient quantity oleates imediately.
    Pancha prasritaki Peyais prepared of ghe, oil, muscle paunchy, marow and rice- Prarita(96 g) of of each. This is prescribed for one in ned of oleation therapy.
    Juice of pork made unctuous by ading ghe and salt, if taken properly twice a day oleates imediately.[83-90]
    Specific Contra- Indications of Substances used in oleation Therapy
    One sufering from spreading type of skin disease, oedema and petulant urinary disorders should not use meat juice of domestic, marshy and aquatic animals, sugar candy, curd, milk and sesamum seds.
    If indispensable, such patients should be oleated by means of ghe duly prepared with therapeuticaly useful during or with Pipali ̵ long peper, Haritaki and Triphala.
    A physician should prepare unctuous drink with the juice of Raisin, and Amalaki (Emblica oficinalis Gaertn), sour curd, ginger, long peper and black peper. By taking this, one gets oleated.
    The medicated ghe best suited for the purpose of oleation therapy is to be prepared with the decoction of Barley, jujube, horse gram, Alkalies, Wine, curd and ghe prepared out of mil k. [91-94]
    Oleation therapy in genital disorders
    Therapeutic preparation for oleation in the treatment of diseases of the female genital tract and semen is to be made with oil, marow, muscle plump, ghe and the decoction of Badara ̵ Zizyphus jujuba Lam, Triphala. [95]
    Sadya Snehana ̵ Simile
    Sadya Snehana ̵ Simile regarding the mark of hasty oleation:
    As a cloth absorbs definite amount of water but ozes out the water in exces, so the oleation theraphy used impartial in proportion with the digestive powder gets digested (that is, it is inefective for the purpose of oleation);
    It oleates only when it is administered in exces. Or as water poured on a frosty earth pot in hasty sucesion ozes out after slightly saturating the later, so, oleation therapy administered in fast sucesion in a day, goes waste without oleating properly. [96-97]

    Salt in Sadyo Snehana
    Role of salt in Sadyo Snehana ̵ swiftly oleation:
    Unctuous drink prepared with salt oleates an individual instantaneously because salt is by nature Abhisyandi (that obstructs the chanel of circulation), unctuous, Sukshma (that pases though subtle chanels), hot, Vyavayi (which gets digested only after its absorption and pervasion in the whole body).[98]
    Routine for administration
    Routine for the administration of diferent therapeutic measures:
    Oleation therapy is required to be administered first; then sweatingtherapy is to be aplied; finaly elimination therapy is to be administered after the administration of oleation and fomentation.[9]
    To sum up:-
    Lord Punarvasu has described in response to the interogate, the profuse types of oleation, the procedure for oleation, al the related complications and the preparations of profuse drugs useful for this therapy.[10]
    Thus ends the thirtenth Chapter on “Oleation” of Sutra part of Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka.
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