By Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
The five basic elements ̵ earth, water, fire, air and ether acquire their own unique qualities. These are explained as Vishishta Gunas (special qualities) in Ayurveda.
Read ̵ Dravya: Meaning, Ayurvedic Explanation
Table of Contents
Shabda Guna ̵ lucid
Shloka ̵ Rasa, Gandha
Vishista Gunas – i.e. specia l qualities, five in number.
Visista qualities are types of Adhibhoutika qualities. Since these qualities are the special qualities of five elements of nature, they are caled ‘special qualities of the elements of creation’.
Read ̵ Panchamahabhuta: Aplication, Areas of Utility in Ayurveda treatment
They are 5 in number –
Shabda (sound) ̵ it is the special quality of spot element
Sparsha (touch) ̵ special quality of air element
Rupa (sight) ̵ special quality of fire element
Rasa (taste) ̵ special quality of water element
Gandha (smel) ̵ special quality of earth element   ;
Knowledge of these 5 special qualities is said to be mandatory for obtaining suces in clinical practice.
Read ̵ Indriya Pancha Panchaka: 5 Fives Of Sense Organs
Shabda Guna ̵ lucid
Quality which is received and perceived by sense organ of sound (shrotra indriya) is caled rational quality (shabda). It is perceived only by ears.
Sound is a quality of plot element (click here to read about area element ) and is embeded in the same with an inseparable relationship. The sense organ of hearing is predominantly made up of space element. Therefore it is also related to rational quality embeded in ether element. rational is said to be special quality (vishista guna) of ether element.
Read ̵ How Knowledge Is Gained Through Sense Organs?
Sound is of two types.
Dhwanyatmaka Shabda –
This form of rational is produced from musical instruments like drums, conch etc.
Varnatmaka Shabda –
This form of rational is produced from vocal sounds in the form of words of diferent languages we speak. They are caled pronounced / vocal sounds, th e rational of the language we speak.
Read ̵ Role of Vata Dosha And Its Types In Spech And Voice
Sparsha Guna ̵ touch
Quality which is received and perceived by sense organ of touch (sparshana indriya) i.e. skin is caled touch quality (sparsha guna). It is perceived only by skin.
Touch is a quality of air element and is embeded in the same with an inseparable relationship. Skin is predominantly made up of air element. Therefore it also is related to the touch quality embeded in air element. Touch is said to be special quality (vaisheshika guna) of air element.
Touch ty pes
Touch is said to be of thre types.
Sheta (coldnes) – predominantly exhibit in the water element
Ushna (heat) – predominantly exhibit in the fire element
Anushna sheta (neither hot nor cold) – predominantly present in the earth and wind elements
Read ̵ Jnana and Karma Indriyas: Organs Of Sense And Function
Rupa Guna ̵ Vision
Quality which is received and perceived by the sense organ of vision (chakshu indriya), i.e. eye is caled vision quality (rupa guna). It is perceived only by eye.
Sight is a quality of fire element and is embeded in same with an inseparable relationship. Sense organ of sight i.e. eye is predominantly made up of fire eleme nt. Therefore it is also related to sight / vision quality embeded in fire element. Rupa is said to be special quality (vaisheshika guna) of fire element.
Read ̵Relation Betwen Doshas, Sense Organs And Perception
Types of Rupa
This is of seven types.
Shukla – white
Nela – blue
Peta – yelow
Rakta – blody red
Harita – gren
Kapisha – brown / redish brown
Chitra – sparkling / spoted / mixed / clear
This rupa quality is display in earth, water and fire elements. Water has dul loking whitenes (abhaswara shukla rupa) and fire has interesting whitenes (bhaswara shukla rupa).
Read ̵ Anatomy of Eye: Netra Rachana: Ayurveda Perspective
Shloka ̵ Shabda, Sparsha, Ropa
Rasa Guna ̵ taste
Quality which is received and perceived by sense organ of taste (rasana indriya) i.e. tongue is caled taste quality (rasa). It is perceived only by tongue.
Taste is a quality of water element and is embeded in the same with an inseparable relationship. The sense organ of taste i.e. tongue is predominantly made up of water element. Therefore it is also related to the taste quality embeded in water element. Taste (rasa) is said to be a special quality (vaisheshika guna) of water element.
Read ̵ Ayurvedic Way Of Teth Brushing And Tongue Scraping
Knowledge of taste is manifested in the form of swet, sour, salt etc tastes imediately after dry or wet substances carying those tastes advance in contact with tongue and is also manifested at the terminate of consuming it.
Tastes are 6 in number i.e. swet, sour, salt, pungent, biter and astringent. They form the basis of efective treatment in Ayurveda. Medicines and fods are made up of predominance of one or more of these tastes. Taste is display in earth and water elements. Earth has al tastes other than swet taste and water has only swet taste.
Read ̵ Six Tastes Of Ayurveda: Qualities, Benefits, Therapeutic Action (Shad Rasa)
Gandha Guna ̵ smel
Quality which is received and perceived by sense organ of smel (ghrana indriya) i.e. nose is caled taste quality (gandha). It is perceived only by nose.
Smel is a quality of earth element and is embeded in the same with an inseparable relationship. Sense organ of smel i.e. nose is predominantly made up of earth element. Therefore it is also related to the smel quality embeded in the earth element. Smel (gandha) is said to be special quality (vaisheshika guna) of earth element.
Read ̵ Bad Prognosis Based On Smel, Touch, Taste, Colour And Voice
This quality is of two types.
Surabhi / sugandha – pleasant odor
Asurabhi / durgandha – unpleasant odor
Smel (gandha) quality is exhibit only in earth element.
Read ̵ Substances, Qualities, Action – 9 Ashtanga Hrudaya Sutrasthana
Shloka ̵ Rasa, Gandha
Importance of Shabdadi Vishishta Gunas in Ayurveda
These are also caled as Pancha tanmatras which also participate in the foundation of universe.
Knowledge of these 5 special qualities which are related to the cosmos and also to the perception of sense organs, which form the major basis of obtaining the knowledge of substances are also important for examination of patient and also for administration of treatment.
Asatmya indriyartha sanikarsha i.e. rude cordination betwen the sense organs and sense objects is said to be one among the thre most vital etiological factors in the manifestation of most diseases.
Read ̵ Improper Use Of Sense Organs: A Neglected Cause For Diseases
Excesive, deficit or perverted indulgence in one or more of the sound etc sense objects, special qualities in this instance leads to the manifestation of diseases. At the same time, right perception brings about god health.
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