Article by MS Krishnamurthy.
Dravya ̵ the mater is the substratum of Guna (qualities) and Karma (action). The Dravya (substance / medicinal herb) contains
Rasa ̵ taste
Guna ̵ qualities
Vipaka ̵ taste conversion during and after digestion
Prabhava ̵ special therapeutic action, contradicting Rasa, Guna, Vipaka and Verya.
Prabhava is the special eficacy of the herb which canot be explained by means of Rasa, Guna etc.
Table of Contents
Concept Of Prabhava
Vichitra Pratyarabdha Dravya examples
Examples for Vikriti ̵ Vishama Samaveta
Prabhava in recent pharmacology
Discusion and Conclusion
Prabhava is the one which is specific and special power of the Dravya.
The property which is responsible for the special or unusual action of Dravya is known as prabhava.
Prabhava may be defined as the special property which produces actions which are diferent from and conflicting to those atributed to rasa, guna, virya and vipaka.
Vikriti Vishama samaveta
Characteristics Of Prabhava:
Prabhava is the property which is characterized by specific actions of substances which can not be explained interms of the pharmacological actions of various constituents of Dravya when they are co nsidered individualy in relation to each other.
Though rasa, virya, vipaka are equal karma is mentioned specialy because of one specific power. That specific property is known as Prabhava.
Prabhava is the unimaginable consequence of the drugs as it is hapens in the case of Mani (precious stones). Manthra (sacred chantings) and celestial herbs. They act in a maner completely diferent from the expected action without depending on taste, potency, quality and digested taste existing in them. The term shakthi or prabhava indicates the special or extreme skil of a drug this is always explained comparing two drugs, one with prabhava and one without.
Concept Of Prabhava
Prabhava has ben explained while describing virya love, Dravya gatha shakthi of 2 types
Chinthya is one which has got vulgar of karya karanabhava, hence it is caled as chinthya other one is Achintya. It is told that due to sahaja dravya swabhava. i.e., Yukthipratipadya but not Budhigamya.
Swabhava is Achintya hence prabhava also dravya- swabhavagatha hence that is Achintya. But it can not be considered under the base of karyakaranabhava action of the Dravyagata rasadi padartha’s wil be changing because of prabhava and cause of this variation can not be predicted hence it is Achinthya.
Prabhava as Achintya (unpredictable) generaly from the constituents of a Dravya. It is also told the virya as Achinthya and chintya. The ‘ Achintya virya’ is considered as prabhava.
Prabhava can be explained through conception of ‘ Achintya virya’ Prabhava janya karma is Achintya ( unpredictable) and unquestionable.
On the basis of Panchanbhowtika composition dravya are divided into 2 groups:
Samanya pratyarabdha dravya — Samanya pratyarabdha dravya are which exhibit structure related pharmacological activi ties and therapeutic efects.
Vichitra prathyarabdha dravya ̵ Vichitra prathyarabdha dravya are which cary out not maintain structural similarity among the constituents
There is another clasification:
Vikrit vishama samaveta
Basicaly there is no disimilarity betwen samanya prathyarabdha dravya and prakritisama samveta dravya but vikriti vishama samaveta difers from vichitra prathyarabdha dravyas. Vikriti vishama samaveta dravya wil acquire similarity among the constituents but exhibits the special therapeutic consequence independent of constituents. Thus prabhava may be tentavely divided into two categories.
Vikriti- vishama samaveta: structuraly similar but functionaly disimilar
Vichitra pratyarabdha: structuraly disimilar but functionaly similar.
Vichitra Pratyarabdha Dravya examples
Examples for Vikriti ̵ Vishama Samaveta
Mani dharana: Diamond which is a C5- isotope emits definite radiations which may asist in numerous disease condition including cancer.
Pumsavana karma: Human foetus is bisexual til 2-3 months of Intra-uterine life. Though sex is geneticaly predictable a substance caled “Diferentiator” is finaly deciding the sex of the human foetus before third month.
Virechanopaga: These are the pro-drugs and analogues pro-drugs are aged to improve pharmacological or biological properties. Analogues are dilapidated to increase potency and to achieve specificity of action.
Ubhaya bhagahara: The dosage of virechana dravyas and vamana dravyas is difere nt therefore their actions, emesis and purgation are dose dependent.
Bhalataka: When Bhalataka aplied externaly produces blisters because of its ushna virya. Same results virya subsides the kapha and also results in rasayana property, when Bhalataka is aplied or old internaly. The former utility is the examples of Nipatha or Adhishava and the later utility is the examples of Adhivasha. The invisible efects which are efect of Nipata might have ben quoted as Achintya virya or prabhava.
Kshira and grita are shamana pratyarabdha dravyas but the kshira reduces apetite while the gruta is apetizer.
Loshuna which has katu rasa, snigdha, guru guna, katu vipaka, it acts as kaphavatahara instead of increasing it.
Raktashali and yavaka believe similar properties but the former is Doshahara while the later is Doshavardhaka.
Shirisha ete acts as antidotes.
Sometimes exposing the individual sufering from poisoning to antidote. May yield qualified result.
Prabhavajanya karma is of 3 types:
Dravya prabhava: Drug action independent of the constitution
Ex: Some of the drugs which are Dosha prashamana, dhatu pradushana, swastahitha.
Guna prabhava: Drug action depends upon the constituents.
Dravya-guna prabhava: Drug action depending upon the Dravya as wel as guna.
The folowing actions are exhibited through Prabhava:
Agadiya karma (antidotal activity) Ex: Shirisha.
Virechana karma (Purgative property) Ex: Danthi
Rakshoghna karma (Antimicrobial property) Ex: Gugulu, jatamamsi
Manasa karma (Psychologic activity) Ex: Kushta, Raktachitraka.
Bhowtika karma (Physical activity)
Prabhava in modern pharmacology
Prabhava: Acording to recent Pharmacology:
Acording to new Pharmacology Prabhava can be explained in subsequent ways:
Prabhava is considered as non-specific activity of drugs. There are many pharmacological properties mentioned in novel pharmacology which results in non-specific activity.
Usualy it is believed that drugs with similar chemical structure wil acquire similar pharmacological actions. But it is not posible to predict their activity on the basis of chemical structure alone.Some times drugs with similar chemical structure may believe entirely diferent actions.
Ex: Morphine and papavarine are structuraly similar but their pharmacological action is diferent, the former is norcotic and CNS dipresent while the later is non-norcotic and muscle relaxant. There are determined drugs admire phenobarbitone chloral hydrate paraldehyde etc, which are structuraly diferent but al are CNS depresants.
In pharmacology, the drug activity can be clasified as:
Structuraly Non- specific: This activity is dependent on physical properties adore solubility partition coeficients and vapor presure and not on the presence or absence of some chemical group. Substances such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols amides, ethers, ketones chlorinated hydrocarbons note narcotic activity and potency of each substance is related to its partition coeficient structuraly non-specific action results from acumulation of a drug in some necesary part of a cel with lipid characteristics.
Structuraly specific: This activity is dependent upon the factors such as the presence or absence of determined functional groups, intra-molecular distance and shape of molecule.
Activity is not easily corelated with any physical property and smal changes in structure often leads to changes in activity structuraly specific activity is dependent upon interaction of the drug with a celula r receptor.
Medicinal Dravya’s which has prabhava:
DRUG GROUP PRABHAVA
Swarna Dhatu   ; Thridoshaghna
Abhraka Dhatu Thridoshaghna
Kshara Kshara Thridoshaghna
Mandukaparni &nb sp; Medhyadi Medhya
Indri Medhyadi Medhya
Shankapushpi &nb sp; Medhyadi Medhya
Jyothishmati Medhyadi Medhya
Kushmanda Medhyadi &nb sp; Medhya
Ustukudasa Medhyadi Medhya
Ahiphena Madakari Madaka
Bhanga Madakari Madaka
Vacha Madakari Medhya
Jatamamsi Madakari Bhutaghna (Manasadoshahara)
Sarpagandha Nidrajanana Nidrajanana
Rasna & nbsp; Vedanastapana Vishaghna
Kadamba Vedanastapana Vedanastapana Padmaka Vedanastapan a Vedanastapana Vetasa Vedanastapana Vedanastapana Suchi & nbsp; Vedanastapana Madaka Parasekayavani Vedanastapana Madaka,Vedanastapana Gugulu & nbsp; Vedanastapana Thridoshaghna
Bhurjapatra Akshepashamana Chakshusya
Chakshushya Chakshusya Chakshusya
Kataka Chakshusya Vishaghna
Shleshmataka Swedopaga Kushtaghna
Khadira Kushtaghna Hridya
Arjuna Hridya Hridya
Hrithpatri &n bsp; Hridya Hridya
Tharani Hridya Hridya
Kaphi   ; Hridayothejaka Gandamalanashaka
Kanchanara Gandamalanashaka Vamana
Madanaphala Vamana &n bsp; Ubhayatobhagahara
Dhamargava Vamana Ubhayatobhagahara
Kritavedana Vamana &n bsp; Vamana Aristaka Vamana Mandaka
Tamraparni Vamana &n bsp; Vamana Hijala Vamanopaga Vamana Shanapushpi &n bsp; Vamanopaga Vamana
Kankusta Tikshavirechana Madaka
Dathura Shola-prashamana & nbsp; Krimighna
Vidanga Krimighna Krimighna
Chowhara Krimighna &n bsp; Krimighna
Ingudi Krimighna Krimighna
Tulasi Krimighna Krimighna
Aphasantina Krimighna Krimighna
Akhaparni Krimighna Arshoghna
Mahanimba & nbsp; Arshoghna Arshoghna
Sunishnaka Arshoghna Arshoghna
Surana &n bsp; Arshoghna Plehaghna
Rohitaka Plehaghna Plehaghna
Petrangeva Praj astapana Garbhakara
Langali Garbhashaya-Sankochaka Garbhapatana
Sharapunkha Plehaghna &nbs p; Plehaghna
Kebuka Garbhashaya-Sankochaka Garbhashaya-Sankochaka
Haritaki Rasayana Rasayana
Pashanabheda &nb sp; Ashmaribhedana Ashmaribhedana
Varuna Ashmaribhedana Ashmaribhedana
Gorakshaganja &nbs p;Ashmaribhedana Ashmaribhedana
Shala Ashmaribhedana Vedanasthapana
Chilahinta Rasayana Vishaghna
Superiority of Prabhava:
The drug action is ultimately controled by prabhava because that is the special or specific power of drug and it is superior among the drug constituents.
The diferent factors which highlight the superiority of Achintya virya i.e., Prabhava are as folows:
Achintya (Unpredictable): Its efects are quite unpredictable and therefore it is considered as superior.
Daiva pratighata(Super natural power): It exhibits supernatural power. Hence it is important.
Visha pratighata (Antidotal efects): It helps in antidotal activity irespective of drug constituents hence it is superior.
Darshana (Practicaly visible): Its extra ordinary efects are practicaly sen.
Shravana (praise): Many scholars praise its eficacy and superiority.
Tulya-rasa-guna vishesha (non-specificity): it wil display very special action independent of other drug constituents.
Adhbhuta karma (Magic efects): using precious stones hypnotism hymns chanting ete, wil yield some magic efects. Hence prabhava is superior.
Agama (clasical treatise): Al the clasical texts high-lighted prabhava as the main quality of a dravya.
Therefore prabhava is considered as superior among sapta padarthas.
Discusion and Conclusion
Prabhava is the Non-specific outcome of the Dravya. It includes both internal usage and external usage of drugs admire Manidharana etc.
Prabhava is the unimaginable efect of the drugs as it is hapens incase of Mani, Mantra Dravyas. They act uterly diferent from other padarthas. It is the term i.e., shakthi or prabhava indicates the special or extreme ability of a drug. This is always explained by comparing 2 drugs, one with prabhava and one without.
Normaly, the drug action basing on the predominance i.e., if rasa is powerful, the drug action in an acordance with rasa even if the guna, karma etc are diferent from rasa.
Ex: Guduchi is tikta in taste and inspite of its ushna virya it acts as pitahara (pita) which means Rasa, the taste is more active in this drug Brhat panchamola drugs though gain kashaya rasa which increases vata acts as paliative of vata by virtue of ushna virya.
Shunti (dry ginger) has tikta rasa which has to increase vata but it is paliates vata by the morality of madhura vipaka. The action of a drug which is not coresponding to any of first 4 pharmacological entities like Rasa, guna, virya vipaka is known as shakthi or prabhava, the special efect.
Dravya, guna, karma wil maintain similarity is genesis usualy due to panchamahabhotha configeration. This is bec ause similar wil design similar. However it ned not be compulsory always. When there is equality or similarity there wil be sajatheya karma wil ocur (samana prathyarabdha) other wise vijatheya karma wil ocur (vichitra prathyarabdha).
If we contemplate prabhava as karma; karma can not be design another karma so it is not posible to contemplate prabhava as karma. Hence it is concluded that prabhava is shakthi. It is sadhana for particular karma.
Totaly it can be considered as Dravya swabhava which is Achintya (un predictable) and vishista karma or specific or special action of the Dravya.
Totaly the prabhava can be considered as specific and special power of the Dravya it is also caled a shakthi, Achinthya virya swabhava of the dravya. Hence I have ben explained the various definitions of the prabhava its characteristics the notion discription regarding prabhava acording to numerous samhithakaras. Diferent clasification based on its ch aracters also explained.
Examples for prabhava, prabhava of dravya its karma and guna also explained the numerous drugs which acts by their special trace also mentioned here.
Acording to modern pharmacology the action of the drug. Its clasification admire structuraly non-specific and structuraly specific is also explained.At last I have explained the superiority of the prabhava, among dravya sapta padarthas.
Hence totaly the prabhava can be considered as the property which is responsible for the specific or unusual action of dravya which is unpredictable. This is the total idea of prabhava which is nothing but a special or specific property or power of the dravya.
Click to share on Twiter (Opens in new window)
Click to share on Facebok (Opens in modern window)
Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in novel window)
Click to share on WhatsAp (Opens in modern window)