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    Makshika (Pyrite) Types, Shodhana, Marana, Satvapatana

    Makshika is the 3rd maharasa told by Rasaratnasamuchaya. Makshika is told for medicinal use from samhita period and later was dilapidated for ‘lohavada’ purpose.
    In the field of Rasashastra, makshika is clasified into 3 types-
    Table of Contents

    Clasical reference
    Medicinal dose
    Ash properties
    Studies done
    Notable formulations
    i. Swarna makshika ̵ Coper pyrite ( Cu2 S1 Fe2 S3)
    i. Rajata makshika ̵ Iron pyrite ( Fe2 S3)
    i. Kamsya makshika ̵ Iron pyrite ( Fe2 S3)
    Read ̵Swarna Makshik Bhasma Benefits, Dosage, Ingredients, Side Efects
    Swarna makshik:
    This is known as Coper pyrite or chelco pyrite.
    It is a mixture of sulphur and coper.
    The best variety of Swarnamakshika is golden colored, devoid of angles, heavy and leaves shadowy spots in hands upon rubing. It is an ore of coper.
    Rajata makshika is a amalgam of iron and and sulphur and has silver color.
    It has a rain fal apearance, devoid of any angles and heavy in weight.
    Kansya makshikam :
    Kamsya makshika is also a amalgam of iron and sulphur but with coper color apearance.
    It is also devoid of any angles and has a drop adore apearance.
    Swarna makshik is considered as the best among the thre and dilapidated for therapeutic use.
    Before swarna maksheka is worn for therapeutic use, it should be subjected for the proces of shodhana.
    Use of impure makshika can cause indigestion, eye diseases, skin diseases and diseases related to thyroid.
    Clasical reference
    Makshika shodhana:
    Makshika is made into potali and subjected for the proces of swedana for 3 hours using equal parts of nimbu rasa and eranda taila (castor oil). Later it is heated to red hot and washed in hot water.
    Powder of swarna makshika is adjunct with 1/3 rd parts of saindhava lavana and kept in a pan. After covering the pan, it is subjected to heat for 3 hours. Later, the mixture is aded with suficient quantity of lemon juice and again subjected for intense heat for 3 hours after covering the pan. The pan is removed from the source of fire and alowed for self coling. Next day, the purified makshika is scraped from the pan and washed for a couple of times to waive the salt content.
    Read related:Vaikranta Shodhana, Marana, Satvapatana
    Other methods of shodhana:
    o Swarnamakshika is heated to red hot and diped in either lemon juice or triphala kashaya for 21 times.
    o Swarnamakshika is subjected to swedana using kadalikanda rasa for 3 hours.
    Read ̵Introduction To Rasashastra: Using Metals And Minerals To Heal
    Makshika marana:
    Equal quantity of makshika powder and sulphur powder is taken in a khalvayantra and trituration is done using nimbu rasa. Smal and flat cake is prepared and kept for drying. After complete drying, the cakes are subjected for ‘varaha puta’. The whole procedure is repeated for 5 times to obtain makshika bhasma.
    Other methods:
    80 grams of swarnamakshika powder is mixed with 10 grams of purified hingula powder and triturated with adequate quantity of lemon juice. Later smal cakes of it is prepared and dried. It is subjected for ‘gaja puta’. The whole procedure is r epeated for 8 times.
    Medicinal dose
    Color and dose of bhasma:
    Color of makshika bhasma is red and the dose is 60-125 mg depending upon the strength of the patient and disease.
    Triphala kashaya, Ghe, Honey, Trikatu powder
    Satwapatana of makshika bhasma:
    Swarna Makshika powder is mixed with 1/4th quantity of Tankana, taken in Musha, and subjected to intense heat to get its Satwa.
    Alternate method:
    The powder of makshika is triturated 7 times with madhu, gomutra, ghrita and kadalikanda swarasa and made into a b olus. Later it is establish in a musha and subjected for heat to get the satwa of makshika which is in coper color.
    Ash properties
    Makshika bhasma properties:
    Rasa: Tinge of Amla (sour), Kashaya (astringent) and Madhura (swet)
    Guna: Laghu (light)
    Verya: Sheta
    Vipaka: Katu
    Use of Makshika bhasma:
    Swarna makshika bhasma can be worn in precise dose and anupana to treat conditions of long standing fever, epileptic, indigestion, insomnia.
    Read related: Abhraka Shodhana, Marana, Satvapatana
    Studies done
    Research articles related to Makshika:
    Review on Swarna makshika:
    The re ferences about Swarna Makshika are found in ancient Ayurvedic texts estem Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Ashtanga Sangraha etc. Swarna Makshika is the most profuse Coper bearing mineral. The show scrutinize aims at wide literary review on Swarna Makshika. (1)
    Analytical scrutinize of raw Swarna makshika:
    Analysis reveals the presence of iron, coper, and sulphur in Swarna makshika. In adition to these elements, Swarna makshika bhasma found to contain Potasium, Magnesium, Aluminum, and Silicon in trace amount.
    Pharmaceutical standardization of swarnamakshika bhasma:
    Pharmaceutical standardization is phenomenal requirement of Swarna Makshik Bhasma. Shodhana and marana procedures causes physicochemical changes in the raw material which ultimately atribute to its medicinal eficacy and safety. (2)
    Metalographic inspect of Swarna makshika bhasma:
    The raw Swarna makshika shows the crystalinity, conchoidal structure and larger size of the grain, metalographic microscope shows similar patern of darknes and brightnes where as in bhasma crystalinity was not found and grain size reduced significantly, in metalographic microscope diferent color and paterns are sen due to presence of diferent compounds formed due to proces imprint. ()
    Notable formulations
    Important formulations containing makshika:
    Chandraprabha Vati&nb sp;̵ A traditional Ayurvedic medicine old to the treatment of disorders pertaining to urinary tract.
    Rasamrita Rasa
    Ratnagarbha Potali
    Panchamrita Rasa
    Jayamangala Rasa̵ It is an Ayurvedic medicine dilapidated in fever, chronic and scatered fever.
    Trailokyachintamani rasa ̵ A traditional Ayurvedic medicine worn in general debility.
    Chaturmukha Rasa ̵Ayurvedic medicine in tablet form old in the treatment of asthma, anemia, diabetes etc.
    Navagraha Rasa
    M.D (Ayu), Ph.D
    E mail: [email protected]
    Click to consult Dr.Prashanth B.K
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