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    Glossary Of Terms aged In Ayurvedic Pharmacology

    By Prof. Vd. Rangaprasad Bhat
    Here are the definitions of comonly dilapidated Ayurvedic terms to recount pharmacology of Ayurvedic herbs and medicines.
    Table of Contents
    Depana
    Ama
    Pachana
    Shamana
    Anulomana
    Sramsana
    Bhedana
    Rechana
    Vamana
    Samshodahana
    Chedana
    Lekhana
    Grahi
    Sthambhana
    Rasayana
    Vajikarana
    Shukrala
    Sokshma
    Vyavayi
    Vikashi
    Visha
    Pramathi
    Vidahi
    Abhishyandi
    Yogavahi
    Raktaprasadana
    Depana
    pacen nAmam vahnikRichcha dIpanaM tadyathA mishi | shA.saM.4/ |
    The drug that which does not digest Ama, but increase the Agni ̵ digestive fire, is caled Depana.
    As is sen in case of Fenel ̵ (Foeniculum vulgare)

    Ama
    Definition of Ama:
    UShmaNo alpabalatvena dhAtuM AdhyaM apAcitam |
    duShTam AmAshayagataM rasaM AmAm prachakShate | vAgbhaTa sU.13/ |
    When the fod, on yarn of a weakly digestion strength, neither get properly digested nor gets converted into rasa but gets spoiled due to shortage or excesive secretion of the gastric juices is known as Ama.
    Pachana
    pachati AmaM na vahniM cha kuryAd yadtadhi pAchanam | shA.saM.4 |
    The herb that digests the Ama, but does not in any way directly stimulates digestive fire / enzymes is caled Pachana. epitome – Nagakeshara ̵ Mesua ferea.
    At the same time the drug that which poseses both the above mentioned properties is caled as Depaneya, Pachaneya
    Example – Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica).
    Shamana
    na shodhayati yat doShAn samAn na udIrayati api |
    samIkaroti saMvrudhAn shamanaM tadyathA amRutA | shA.saM.4/
    Herb that does not expel Doshas out of the body and does not increase the balanced Doshas, but calms or pacifies the agravated / increased Doshas is caled as Shamana.
    Eg: Amruta ̵ Guduchi ̵ Tinospora cordifolia
    Anulomana
    kRitvA pAkaM malAnAm yat bhitvA bandhamadho nayet |
    tachcha anulomanaM j~neyaM yathA proktA harItakI | shA.saM.4/ |
    The herb which initialy does Paka of Malas, which breaks down the obstructed Malas, and brings it downward, is known as Anulomana.
    Example – Terminalia chebuila (haritaki)
    Sramsana
    paktavyaM yat apaktvaiva shliShTaM koShTe malAdikam | nayati adha: sraMsanaM tadhyathA syAt kRitamAlaka: | shA. saM.4/ |
    The drug that which takes no part in the digestion, but drives down the impacted digestive byproducts that remain within the intestines is caled as sramsanam.
    Example:- Krutamala (Casia fistula).
    BhedanamalAdikaM abadham vA yadbadham piNDitaM malai: | bhitvA adha: pAtayati tat bhedanaM kaTukI yathA | shA.saM. 4/ |
    The bhedana drugs, irespective of the arduous or soft consistency of the malas caused by the vAta, pushes the excreta downwards by breaking them into several pieces. example Picroriza Kuroa (Katuki)
    Rechana
    vipakvaM yat apakvaM vA malAdi dravatAm nayet | rechanati api taj~neyam rechanaM trivRitA yathA | shA.saM.4/ |
    The Rechana drug, liquefies the malas irespective of them being in a digested state of undigested state and expels them out of the intestines. precise – Operculinaturpethum (t rivrit).

    Vamana
    apakva ̵ pita, shleShmANau ̵ balAt UrdhvaM nayet tu yat | vamanaM tadhi vij~neyaM madanasya phalam yathA | shA.saM.4/ |
    The drug that which expels the undigested pita and Shleshma by forcefuly bringing the doshas upwards and expeld through the oral cavity is vamana drug. example – madanaphala (Randia dumetorum).
    Samshodahana
    sthAnAt bahirnayet Urdhvam-adho vA malasaMchayam | dehe saMshodhanaM tat syAt ̵ devadAliphalaM yathA | shA.saM.4/ |
    That drug which displaces the acumulated malas formed post digestion either through the uper route or through the lower route is known as samsh odhana. example ̵ devadaliphala (fruit of Lufa echinata).
    Chedana
    shliShTAn kaphAdikAndoShAn unmUlayati yadbalAt | ChedanaM tat ̵ yavakShAro; marIcAni; shilAjatu | shA.saM.4/ |
    The drug that which forcibly expels not fair the doshas estem kapha etc but also others factors (like over grown tisues) which are deply roted to the sytem is caled as chedanam. Examples for chedana dravyas are ̵ yavakshara (alkaline); black peper, Shilajit. .
    Lekhana
    dhAtu-malAn vA dehasya vishoShya ulekhayet cha yat | lekhanaM tad yathA kSh audraM; nIramuShNaM; vacA; yavA: | shA.saM.4/|
    The drug action that which causes ulekhana (scraping efect) of the dhAtu and malas by casuing extreme drynes over them is known as lekhana. example ̵ kshaudra (Honey); Hot water); vacha (Acorus calamus); yava (Hordeum vulgaris)
    Grahi
    dIpanaM pAchanaM yat syAt uShNatvAt drava shoShakam | grAhi tat cha yathA shuNThI; jIrakaM; gajapipalI | shA.saM.4/ |
    The group of drugs that which has the properties of both dipana and pAcana, helps further in absorbing the excesive moisture of the intestinal mucosa, by the virtue of its heat generating properties is known as grahi. epitome ̵
    Ginger, Cumin seds, Gajapipali (Scindapsus oficinalis).
    Sthambhana
    raukShyAt-shaityAt- kaShAyatvAt- laghupAkAt cha yat bhavet | vAtakRit staMbhanaM tat syAt yathA vatsaka; TuNTukau |shA.saM.4/|
    The group of drugs that which causes stasis and condensation of the tisue fluids by the virtue of its coling, drying and astringent properties and that which is easily digestible is known as sthambhana. example – vatsaka (Holarhena antidysenterica) and Tuntuka (Oroxylum indicum).
    Diference betwen sthambhana and grahi :-
    Agneya guNa bhUyiShTaM ̵ toyAMshaM parishoShya ̵ yat | saMgRiNhAti malaM tat syAt grAhi ̵ shuNThyAdayo yathA | samIra guNa bhUyiShTam shItatvAt yat nabhasvata: | vidhAya vRidhiM stabhnAti staMbhanaM tadhyathA vaTa:
    The grahi drugs are predominant with Agneya gunas, only hence it is posible to cause the trace of sangrahati mala (improving the consistency of mala) by precise parshoshana (absorption) of the chyle from within the intestinal mucosa. On the conflicting, the sthambhaka dravyas are Samera quality (vAta) predominating in nature. Only hence due the shIta or cold potency there ocurs the static or statis action within the intestines.
    Rasayana
    rasAyanaM cha taj~neyM yat jarA-vyAdhi nAshanaM | yathA amRitA ̵ rudaMtI cha ̵ gugulu: cha ̵ harItakI | shA.saM.4/ |
    The group of drugs that which postpones the used age and helps in preventing the diseases is known as rasayana. Examples ̵ Amrita (Tinospora cordifolia), Rudanti (Cresa cretica), gugulu (Balsomodendron mukul), haritaki (Terminalia chebula).
    Vajikarana
    yasmAdravyAd bhavet strIShu harSho vAjikaraM cha tat | yathA nAgabalAdhyAsyu: bIjaM cha kapikachChujam | shA.saM.4/ |
    The drug that which increases the sexual desire and erotism is known as vajikarana. epitome – nagabal (sida spinosa) kapikachu (Mucuna pruriens).
    Shukrala
    yasmAt shukrasya vRidhi: syAt shukralaM cha taduchyate | yathA.ashvagandhA ̵ musalI ̵ sharkarA cha ̵ shatAvarI | shA.saM.4/ |
    The drug that which increases the shukra dhAtu is known as Shukrala. Examples – asvagandha (withania somnifera), musali (Curculigo orchioides), Candy sugar and Asparagus racemosus.
    Sokshma
    dehasya sUkShmachChidreShu vishedhyatsUkShmaM uchyate | yathA saindhavaM ̵ kShaudraM ̵ nimba:tailaM ̵ rubUdbhavam | shA.sam.4/ |
    The drug that which has inherit and the ability to bypas the ,inutest of the pores in the body is known as Sukshma dravyas. example ̵ saindhava (rock salt)̵ Honey – nem oil ̵ castor oil.
    Vyavayi
    pUrvaM vyApya akhilaM kAyaM tata: pAkaM cha gachChati | vyavAyi tadhyathA bha~NgA phenaM cAhisamudbhavaM | shA.saM. 4/ |
    The drug is caled as Vyavayi, when it first gets difusely spread acros the whole of the body, and then gets subjected to the proces of d igestion. precise ̵ Vijaya (Canabis indica) ahiphena (Opium).
    Vikashi
    sandhibandhAMstu shithilAn yat karoti vikAshi tat | vishleShya aujascha dhAtubhyo yathA kramuka ̵ kodravA: | shA.saM.4/ |
    The drug that which reaches the sapta dhatus and deprives them from their posesion of ojas there by causing the clinical efect of losenes of the joints and the asociated structures is caled as Vikashi. epitome – kramuka (Betel nut); kodrava (a variety of fod).
    Visha
    vyavAyi cha vikAshi syAt sUkShmaM Chedi madAvaham | AgneyaM jIvitakaraM yogavAhi smRitaM viShaM | shA. saM.4/ |
    The drug gets caled as Visha which by the virtu e of its posesion of the vyavayi, Vikashi, Sokshma, chedana, yogavahi, madakara and Agneya properties is detrimental to the life of the person. precise – Aconite and other poisons.
    Pramathi
    nijavIryeNa yadravyaM srotobhyo doShasaMchayam | nirasyati pramAthi syAtadhyathA marichaM ̵ vacA | shA. saM.4/ |
    The drug which by the morality of its inherent strength removes al pathological mater from the structures of body chanels, such as the secretory, excretory etc., is caled as pramathi. epitome ̵ Piper nigrum and Vacha ̵ Acorus calamus.
    Vidahi
    vidAhi dravyam udgAram amlam kuryAtathA tRiShAm | hRidi dAhaM cha janayet pAkaM gachChati tachcirAt | shA. sAM.4/ |
    The drug which takes much time for absorption and that which causes acrid e ructations, thirst and heart burn is known as vidahi.
    Abhishyandi
    paichChilyAd gauravAd dravyaM rudhvA rasavahA: sirA: | dhate yad gauravaM tat syAd abhiShyaMdi yathA dadhi | shA.saM.4/ |
    The drug, which on yarn of its heavy and slimy properties causes hurdle in the rasavaha chanels there by causing retention of the secretions is known as abhishyandi. example – dadhi (Curd).
    Yogavahi
    gRiNhAti yogavAhi dravyaM saMsargajavastujAMshcha guNAn | pachyamAnaM yathaivan madhu ̵ jala ̵ taila ̵ Ajya ̵ sUta ̵ lohAdi | shA.saM.4/ |
    Yogavahi is that synergestic medicine which upon geting digested works in sympathy with the properties of the drugs with which it is being mixed and given as a combination. precise – Honey, water, Oil, Ghe, Mercury etc.,
    Raktaprasadana
    The drug which facilitates the fre circulation of the blod by removing the congestion and improving the quality of blod, is caled raktaprasadana. As is sen in the herbs love padmaka (Prunus pudam),ma?ji (Rubia cordiofolia), haridra (Curcuma longa).
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