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    Ayurvedic Pharmacology – Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana 26

    26th Chapter of Charaka Samhita explains Ayurvedic pharmacology in detail, along with incompatible fods, qualities and actions of taste, 5 basic elements. This chapter is caled as Atreya Bhadrakapyiya Adhyaya.
    Once upon a time Atreya, Bhadrakapya, Shakunteya, Purnaksha Maudgalya, Hiranyaksha Kaushika, Kumarashira Bharadvaja, the king Varyovida, Nimi the king of Videha, Kankayana the best among the physicians of Bahlika(Balkh)- al these Ayurveda experts, having self control- asembled in the pleasant wods of Chaitraratha on a pleasant trip.
    They sat together and then started discusing some of the necesary problems relating to corelation betwen Rasa(taste) and Diet.[3-7]
    Table of Contents
    Views on number of tastes
    One type of taste
    Two types of tastes
    Thre types of taste
    Four types of taste
    Five types of taste
    Six types of taste
    Seven types of taste
    Eight types of tastes
    Infinite tastes
    Concluding remarks
    Clasification of mater
    Earth element
    Water element
    Fire element
    Air element
    Ether element
    Al substances as medicine
    Action of medicine
    Taste combinations
    Views on number of tastes
    Diferent views of members on the number of taste (Rasa):
    One type of taste
    Bhadrakapya opined that there is only one type of taste. Because, taste is perceived by tongue, and it is the object of tongue sense organ. He said that it is no diferent than water element (Jala Mahabhuta)
    Two types of tastes
    Shakunteya Brahmana opined that there are two types of tastes ̵
    Chedaneya ̵ Ematiationg, scraping
    Upashamaneya ̵ Nourishing, paliating, calming
    Thre types of taste
    Purnaksha Maudgalya ̵ 3 types of taste
    Chedaneya ̵ Ematiationg, scraping
    Upashamaneya ̵ Nourishing, paliating, calming
    Sadharana ̵ In betwen Chedaneya and Upashamaneya
    Four types of taste
    Hiranyaksha Kaushika ̵
    1. Swadu Hita ̵ palatable and wholesome
    2. Swadu Ahita ̵ delicious but unwholesome
    3. Aswadu Hita ̵ Unpalatable, but wholesome
    4. Aswadu Ahita ̵ Unpalatable and unwholesome
    Five types of taste
    Kumarashira Bharadwaja ̵ Five types
    1.Parthiva ̵ Originating from earth element
    2. Apya ̵ Originating from water element
    3. Taijasa ̵ Originating from fire element
    4. Vayaviya ̵ Originating from air element
    5. Akashiya ̵ Originating from ether / vacum element
    Six types of taste
    Royal Sage Varyovida Six types
    1. Guru (heavy)
    2. Laghu (Light)
    3. Sheta (Cold)
    4. Ushna (Hot)
    5. Snigdha (Unctuous / oily)
    6. Roksha (Nonunctouous)
    Seven types of taste
    As per Nimi the king of Videha ̵
    1. Madhura (swet)
    2. Amla (sour)
    3. Lavana (Saline)
    4. Katu (Pungent)
    5. Tikta (Biter)
    6. Kashaya (Astringent)
    7. Kshara (Alkaline)
    Eight types of tastes
    As per Dhamarag ava Badisa ̵
    1. Madhura (swet)
    2. Amla (sour)
    3. Lavana (Saline)
    4. Katu (Pungent)
    5. Tikta (Biter)
    6. Kashaya (Astringent)
    7. Kshara (Alkaline)
    8. Avyakta (imperceptible)
    Infinite tastes
    Kankayana Bahlika opines that tastes are inumerable, because of the inumerability of qualities, actions, that reside in a substance.[8]
    Concluding remarks
    Concluding remarks by Chair person- Lord Punarvasu:
    There are only six tastes ̵
    1. Madhura (swet)
    2. Amla (sour)
    3. Lavana (Saline)
    4. Katu (Pungent)
    5. Tikta (Biter)
    6. Kashaya (Astringent)
    The Yoni ̵ source material for the manifestation of al these tastes is water element ̵ Jala Mahabhuta
    Chedana ̵ emaciation and Upashama na ̵ nourishment are two types of action of tastes. Hence they are not tastes themselves.
    Combination of these two action leads to the manifestation of tastes having a general action (Sadharana).
    Swadu (Palatability) or otherwise is the subjective reaction (bhakti); wholesomenes (Hita) or unwholesomenes (Ahita) constitutes, the specific action; Hence, four types of tastes theory is invalid.
    The five basic elements form dravya ̵ substance. Due to diferent permutation and amalgam, due to mark of time, asign, season on them, the substance exhibits qualities estem Guru (heavy), laghu (lightnes) etc. Hence six types of taste based on quality is invalid.
    Because of its corosive nature, it is known as Kshara / Alkali; Hence, it is a physical trace. Thus kshara canot be caled as taste. This is manifested by the amalgam of many tastes and it poseses itself many tastes dominated by pungent and saline ones; Kshara is the object of many senses (for exampl e, it can be sen, it can be touched etc) and it involves a special method of preparation.
    Avyakta ̵ imperceptibility of tastes is efected only in Jala Mahabhuta (water element). It hapens when the taste is hiden dep in the substance or is exhibited incompletely. Hence, it canot be said as a type of taste.
    It is not corect to narate that the tastes are inumerable, by just saying that the substances in the world are inumerable. Even in the inumerable substances, the qualities, action and taste of those substances are not inumerable. So we shal now say the specific characteristics and distinctive features of the six tastes separately. [9]
    Clasification of mater
    Observations regarding the clasification of mater:
    Al mater is constituted of five Mahabhutas (five basic elements);
    Some of the materials are Chetana (have soul) and Achetana (does not have soul)
    Qualities of substances are Shabda (sound), Sparsha (touch), Ropa (vision), Rasa (taste) and Gandha (Smel)
    also the twenty qualities begining with heavines etc 20 qualities
    These substances are useful in Vamana etc Panchakarma therapies.[10]
    Physical properties of Pancha Mahabhutas
    Earth element

    Qualities and function of earth element ̵

    Substances that acquire below qualities in abundance are caled as Parthiva ̵ having earth as dominant element.
    Guru ̵ heavy,
    Khara ̵ tough,
    Katina ̵ hard,
    Manda ̵ dul,
    Sthira ̵ stable,
    Vishada ̵ non-slimy, clear
    Sandra ̵ dense,
    Sthola ̵ bulk, coarse and
    Gandha ̵ Smel
    These Parthiva ̵ earth dominant substances cause
    Upachaya ̵ promote plumpnes,
    Sanghata &# 821; compactnes, give shape to body and body organs
    Gaurava ̵ heavines and
    Sthairya ̵ stability.
    Water element
    Qualities and function of (liquids) materials having water-element dominance ̵ Apya Dravya

    Substances that acquire below qualities in abundance are caled as Apya ̵ having water as dominant element.
    Drava ̵ liquid,
    Snigdha ̵ unctuous, oily
    Sheta ̵ cold
    Manda ̵ tiresome, behind flowing
    Mrudu ̵ soft,
    Pichila ̵ slimy, sticky
    Rasa ̵ taste
    They promote below functions
    Upakleda ̵ stickines,
    Sneha ̵ unctuousnes, Oilines
    Bandha ̵ compactnes,
    Vishyanda ̵ moistnes,
    Mardava ̵ softnes and
    Prahlada ̵ hapines.
    Fire element
    Qualities and function of materials having fire-element dominance ̵ Agneya Dravya
    Substances that gain below qualities in abundance are caled as Agneya ̵ having fire as dominant element.
    Ushna ̵ hot,
    Tekshna ̵ sharp,
    Sokshma ̵ subtle, minute
    Laghu ̵ light,
    Roksha ̵ drynes
    Vishada ̵ non-slimy, clarity
    Ropa ̵ vision
    They promote below functions
    Daha ̵ combustion, burning
    Paka ̵ digestion, metabolism,
    Prabha ̵ luster,
    Prakasha ̵ radiance and
    Varna ̵ color.
    Air element
    Qualities and function of materials having air-element dominance ̵ Vayavya Dravya
    Substances that acquire below qualities in abundance are caled as Vayavya ̵ having air as dominant element.
    Laghu ̵ lightnes,
    Sheta ̵ cold,Roksha ̵ nonuctuous, dry
    Khara ̵ rough,
    Vishada ̵ Clear, non- slimy,
    Sokshma ̵ subtle, minute
    Sparsha ̵ touch
    They promote
    Roukshya ̵ roughnes,
    Glani ̵ hatred, tirednes
    Vichara ̵ movement,
    Vaishadya ̵ clarity, non-slimines and
    Laghava ̵ lightnes.
    Ether element
    Qualities and function of materials having ether / vacum ̵ element dominance ̵ Akasheya Dravya
    Substances that have below qualities in abundance are caled as Akasheya ̵ having ether as dominant element.
    Mridu ̵ soft,
    Laghu ̵ lightnes,
    Sokshma ̵ smothnes
    Shabda ̵ sound
    They promote
    Mardava ̵ softnes,
    Soushirya ̵ porosity, emptines and
    Laghava ̵ lightnes.[1]
    Al substances as medicine
    Al the substances in this world can be medicine:
    With the above explanation, there is no substances in this world, without any medicinal qualities / therapeutic utility. It is up to the physician to apropriately decide and use the substances as medicine based on
    Yukti ̵ planed wisdom and
    Artha ̵ knowledge of the exact purpose of the substance. [12]
    Action of medicine
    How a medicine acts? Pharmaco-dynamics of drugs:
    It is not just by the ethic of Guna ̵ qualities, that a substance exhibits action.
    In fact they act by virtue of their own nature or qualities or both on a right ocasion, in a given region, in apropriate condition and situations; the mark so produced is considered to be their action( Karma);
    Yena Kurvanti, tat ve ryam ̵ By which a medicine acts, is caled as Verya. The factor responsible for the manifestation of the impres is known as Verya:
    Yatra kurvanti tat adhikaranam ̵ where they act is the Adhisthana / Adhikarana ( site of action);
    Yada kurvanti, sa kalaha ̵ when they act is the time,
    yatha kurvanti sa upayaha ̵ how they act is the Upaya or mode of action;
    Yat sadhayati, tat phalam ̵ what they acomplish is the achievement.[13]
    Taste combinations
    There are 63 combinations of Rasas (tastes) depending upon the variation of the nature of the substance, region and time, they are being explained here.[14]
    Sixty thre types of Rasa:
    A. By the amalgam of two Rasas-15 in number
    1. Swet and sour
    2. Swet and saline
    3. Swet and pungent
    4. Swet and biter
    5. Swet and a stringent
    6. sour and saline
    7. sour and pungent
    8. sour and biter
    9. sour and astringent
    10. saline and pungent
    1. saline and biter
    12. saline and astringent
    13. pungent and biter
    14. pungent and astringent
    15. biter and astringent
    B. By the amalgam of thre Rasas- 20 in number
    16. Swet , Sour and Saline
    17. Swet , Sour and Pungent
    18. Swet Sour and biter
    19. Swet, Sour and Astringent
    20. Swet, saline and Pungent
    21. Swet, Saline and Biter
    2. Swet , saline and Astringent
    23. Swet, Pungent and biter
    24. Swet, Pungent and Astringent
    25. Swet, biter and Astringent
    26. Sour, Saline and Pungent
    27. Sour, saline and Biter
    28. Sour , Saline and astringent
    29. Sour, Pungent and Biter
    30. Sour, Pungent and Astringent
    31. Sour, Biter and Astringent
    32. Saline, Pungent and Biter
    3. Saline, Pungent and Astringent
    34. Saline, Biter and Astringent
    35. Pungent, Biter and Astringent
    C. By the amalgam of four Rasas-15 in number
    36. Swet, Sour , Saline and Pungent
    37. Swet, Sour , Saline and Biter
    38. Swet, Sour , Saline and Astringent
    39. Swet, Sour , Pungent and Biter
    40. Swet, Sour , Pungent and Astringent
    41. Swet, Sour , Biter and Astringent
    42. Swet, Saline, Pungent and Biter
    43. Swet, Saline, Biter and Astringent
    4. Swet, saline, Astringent and Pungent
    45. Swet, Pungent, biter and Astringent
    46. Sour, Saline, Pungent and Biter
    47. Sour, Saline, Biter and Astringent
    48. Sour, Saline, Astringent and Pungent
    49. Sour, Pungent, Biter and Astringent
    50. Saline, Pungent, Biter and Astringent
    D. By the amalgam of five Rasas- 6 in number
    51. Sour, Saline, Pungent Biter and Astringent
    52. Swet, Saline, Pungent, Biter and Astringent
    53. Swet, Sour, Pungent, Biter and Astringent
    54. Swet, Sour, Saline, Biter and Astri ngent
    5. Swet, Sour, Saline, Pungent and Astringent
    56. Swet, Sour, Saline, Pungent and Biter
    E. Without any combination -6 in number
    57. Swet
    58. Sour
    59. Saline
    60. Pungent
    61. Biter
    62. Astringent

    F. By the combination of al the Six Rasas-
    63. Swet, Sour, Saline, Pungent, Biter and Astringent. [15-2]
    The number may stil move up to the extent of infinity if Anurasa (after tastes or subsidiary tastes) and their relative degres are taken into narative. [23]
    In view of their therapeutic utility, fifty- seven combinations and sixty thre types of Rasas(tastes) are enunciated.[24]
    General principles of Rasa therapy:
    A physician may prescribe drugs having one taste or amalgam of several tastes, with due regard to the nature of imbalanced Doshas, the resultant manifestation of the disease and specific actions of drugs etc, for the maintenance of health. Similarly for the cure of diseases, drugs having one or more tastes may be prescribed.[25-26]
    Importance of the knowledge of the clasification of Rasa and Dosha:
    A physician, wel acquainted with the combinations of Rasa (taste) and Doshas, seldom comits blunders in ascertaining the etiology, symptoms and treatment of diseases. [27]
    Identification of Rasa (taste) and Anurasa (after-taste)in a given substance:
    The taste that is felt at the begining and terminate of the time of contact of tongue, by a dry substance, is considered as Rasa. When such a taste is not distinctly perceptible but is infered only by its actions, it is known as Anurasa (after-taste). It is included in one of the six tastes and there is no separate seventh taste.[28]
    Paradi Guna ̵ special list of qualities:
    Apart from the 20 qualities of substances, there are 10 other qualities, known as Paradi Guna (starting from Para). They are ̵
    Para ̵ superiorityApara ̵ inferiority
    Yukti ̵ planing, propriety (proper aplication),
    Sankhya ̵ number
    Samyoga ̵ combination
    Vibhaga ̵ division
    Pruthaktva ̵ individuality, separation (consisting of non amalgam, distinctnes and plurality),
    Parimana ̵ quantification
    Samskara ̵ habit, transformation (method of preparation)
    Abhyasa ̵ practice, repetition
    Para, Apara (superiority and inferiority)
    The superiority and inferiority can be apreciated in
    Desha ̵ plot, parts of body
    Kala ̵ season
    Vayo ̵ age
    Mana ̵ measurements
    Paka ̵ digestion
    Verya ̵ potency and
    Rasa ̵ taste
    Yukti ̵ planing
    Planing of treatment with one or more components.
    Sankhya ̵ number ̵
    Sankhya is related with maths, to counting.
    Samyoga ̵ combination ̵
    Samyoga is comb ining two or more substances.
    Vibhaga ̵ division-
    Division of a complex thing into many components is Vibhaga
    Prutaktva ̵
    Prutaktva is individuality, considering each component singularly, diferentiation.
    Parimana ̵
    To measure or quantify.
    Samskara ̵
    Procesing, converting, habit, transformation (method of preparation)
    Abhyasa ̵
    Doing the same thing continuously.
    Without knowing these Paradi qualities, a physician canot do wel in treatment. [29-35]
    Properties atributed to Rasas realy belong to Dravyas:
    A quality, itself canot hold another quality. So, taste, being a quality, canot take other qualities. Al the qualities of the taste that were explained, are actualy the qualities of the substance, which holds that taste.
    Al the qualities including taste, reside in the substance (Dravya). [36]
    In the eve nt of the texts conveying aparently contrary views, the interpretation should be based on the contextual, local and temporal propriety, the intention of the author and the rules of interpretation (Tantra Yukti).[37]
    Genesis of Rasa from five basic elements;
    The mon is the presiding Deity of water. The water in the atmosphere (before it fals on the ground) is by nature col and light, and its Rasa is not manifested at this stage. The moment it starts faling from atmosphere and after it fals on the ground, it gets impregnated with the qualities of the five Mahabhutas and it nourishes the individuals belonging to the vegetable and animal kingdom. At this stage the six tastes manifest themselves in these individuals. [39]
    Predominance of basic elements in individual Rasa:
    Al the tastes have Jala Mahabhuta (water element) dominance.
    Swet taste ̵ Madhura rasa = Prithvi + Ap (earth + water)
    Sour taste ̵ Amla rasa = Pra thvi + Agni (earth + fire)
    Salt taste ̵ Lavana Rasa = Jala and Agni (water + fire)
    Pungent taste ̵ Katu Rasa = Vayu + Agni (air and fire)
    Biter taste ̵ Tikta Rasa = Vayu + Akasha (air and ether)
    Astringent taste ̵ Kashaya Rasa = Vayu and Prithvi (air and earth).
    Vegetables and animals are of diverse type, depending upon their color and shape (owing to the predominance or otherwise of the numerous Mahabhutas (5 basic elements). Similarly, tastes are also six in number due to the predominance or otherwise of the five Mahabhutas. The predominance or otherwise of five Mahabhutas in turn depends on the six seasonal variations. [40]
    Flow of Rasas (taste):
    Rasas with qualities of fire (Agni) and air(Vayu) believe a tendency of upward movement. This is because of the lightnes and upward mobility of Vayu and upward flames of Agni.
    The Rasas with the qualities of Jala and Prithvi on the other hand have a tendency for downward movemen t because of the heavines of Prithvi and downward flow of Jala.
    The Rasas within both the categories of substances mentioned above share both the qualities. [41]
    We shal now reveal the properties and actions of each one of the six Rasa as they are found in profuse drugs and diets. [42]
    Action of Swet Taste:
    Sharera Satmya ̵ congenial to the body, wholesome
    Rasa, Rudhira, Mamsa Medo Asthi Maja Oja Shukra Abhivardhana ̵ improves ̵ Rasa(body fluid), blod, muscle, corpulent, bone, marow, ojas, semen and longevity. and also Ojas.
    Ayushyaha ̵ improves life expectancy.
    Shadindriya Prasadana ̵ They are sothing to the six sense organs. (5 + mind)
    Bala Varnakara &#8 21; improves strength and skin complexion
    Pita Visha Marutaghna ̵ balances Pita, toxicity and Vata.
    Trishna Daha Prashamana ̵ relieves thirst and burning sensation
    Tvachya ̵ improves skin quality
    Keshya ̵ improves hair
    Kanthya ̵ improves voice quality
    Balya ̵ improves strength and imunity
    Prenana ̵ sothing
    Jevana ̵ enlivening,
    Tarpana ̵ invigorating
    Bruhmana ̵ nourishing
    Sthairyakara ̵ improves body stamina and stability
    Kshena Kshata Sandhanakara ̵ useful in relieving chest injury and bone wreck healing
    Ghrana Mukha Kantha Oshta Jihva Prahladana ̵ sothing to the nose, mouth, throat, lips and tongue
    Daha Murcha Prashamana ̵ relieves burning sensation and unconsciousnes
    Shat Pada Pipelikanam ishtatamaha ̵ atracts bes and ants.
    Snigdha sheto guruscha ̵ unctuous, colant and heavy to digestion
    When swet is used in ex ces, it causes Kapha vitiation, leading to
    Sthoulya ̵ obesity
    Mardava ̵ increased softnes of the body
    Alasyam Atisvapnam ̵ increases lazines, and exces slep,
    Gauravam ̵ increased feling of heavines
    Anana Abhilasha ̵ lack of interest in fod
    Agner Daurbalya ̵ low digestion strength
    Aasya Kanthayor mamsabhivrudhi ̵ increased muscle growth in mouth and throat
    Shwasa, Kasa ̵ cough, col, asthma
    runing nose, indigestion (intestinal torpor)
    Sheta jwara ̵ fever of Kapha imbalance, with col feling
    Anaha ̵ bloating
    feling of swetnes in mouth
    Vamathu ̵ vomiting
    los of sensation, los of voic e
    Galaganda, Gandamala, Shlepada ̵ Scrofula, cervical lymphadenitis, elephantiasis,
    Gala Shopha ̵ Galasopha (Pharayngitis)
    Bati Dhamani Galopalepa ̵ Adhesion in the blader, vesels (as in atherosclerosis ̵ cholesterol deposition in blod vesels), throat
    Akshi Amaya, Abhishyanda ̵ eye disorders, conjunctivitis [43-i]
    Action of Sour Taste ̵ Amla Rasa

    Bhaktam rochayati ̵ improves taste of fod
    Agnim depayati ̵ improves digestion strength
    Deham brimhayati, Urjayati ̵ nourishes the body, improves enthusiasm
    Mano Bodhayati ̵ pleases the mind
    Indriyani Drudhikaroti ̵ strengthens sense organs
    Balam Vardhayati ̵ improves strength and imunity
    Vatam Anulomayati ̵ ensures movement of Vata in its natural direction
    Hrudayam tarpayati ̵ nourish the heart
    Asyam Asravayati ̵ causes salivation
    Bhuktam Apakarshayati ̵ helps in swalowing
    Kledayati, jarayati ̵ moistens and digests fod
    Prenayati ̵ refreshing
    Laghu, Ushna Snigdhascha ̵ light, hot and unctuous
    When sour is aged in exces, it leads to
    Dantan harshayati ̵ causes tingling sensation in teth
    Tarshayati ̵ causes abundant thirst
    Samelayati akshini ̵ causes drowsines in eyes
    Samvejayati lomani ̵ horipulation
    Kapham vilapayati ̵ Liquefies and vitiates Kapha
    Pitam Abivardhayati ̵ increases Pita
    Raktam dushayati ̵ vitiates blod
    Mamsam vidahati ̵ causes burning sensation in muscle tisue
    Kayam shithilikaroti ̵ makes the body britle
    kshenakshata krusha durbalanam shvayathum apadayati ̵ in lean, injured and feble persons, it causes sweling and inflamation
    Due to heating property they cause supuration of wounds caused by ulceration, trauma, contagious bites, burn, break, animals, (viz snakes adore Karanda), bruise, excision, incision, separation, perforation and crushing.
    paridahati kantamuro hrudayam ca ̵ Causes burning sensation in throat and heart position. [43-i]

    Action of Salt taste ̵ Lavana Rasa Karma ̵

    Pachanaha ̵ asist in digestion
    Kledanaha ̵ causes moistening efect
    Depanaha chyavana chedano -improves digestion, scraping efect, excision efect
    bhedana, tekshna ̵ breaks down, piercing, sharp
    Saro ̵ causes / initiates movement
    Vikarasya adhaha sramsyavakashakara ̵ causes movement of Doshas in downward direction
    Vatahara ̵ Balances Vata
    Stambhana bandha samghata vidhamana ̵ breaks down stifnes, tightening efect and obstructions
    sarvarasa pratyanekabhutaha ̵ can dominate al other tastes
    asyam asravayati ̵ causes salivation
    kapham vishyandayati ̵ liquifies Kapha
    margan vishodhayati ̵ cleanses and clears body chane ls
    sarvasharera avayavan mrudukaroti ̵ ̵ softens and brings about tendernes in al body parts
    rochayati aharam ̵ improves taste of fod
    aharayogi natyartham guru snigdha ushnascha ̵ esential ingredient in fods. It is not to heavy, not to hot and not oily.
    When salt is worn in exces ̵
    Pitam kopayati ̵ causes vitiation of Pita
    Rakatm vardhayati ̵ agravates blod
    Tarshayati ̵ causes abundant thirst
    Murchayati ̵ causes fainting
    Tapayati ̵ causing heating sensation
    Darayati ̵ causes erosion
    Krushnati mamsani ̵ depletion of muscle tisue
    Pragalayati kushtani ̵ sloughing of skin diseases
    Visham vardhayati ̵ agravates poison efects and symptoms
    shophan sphotayati ̵ opens up swelings
    dantan chyavayati ̵ causes teth dislodgement
    pumstvam upahanti ̵ causes impotency
    indriyani uparunadhi ̵ obstruction of the function of senses
    vali palita khalityam apadayati ̵ premature wrinkling, graying and baldnes
    lohitapta amlapita ̵ bleding disorders, gastritis
    visarpa ̵ herpes
    Vatarakta ̵ gout
    Vicharchika indralupta ̵ eczema and alopecia [43-i]

    Action of Pungent Taste ̵ Katu Rasa

    Vaktram Shodhayati ̵ cleanses mouth
    Agnim depayati ̵ improves digestion strength
    Bhuktam shoshayati ̵ dries up fod
    Ghranam asravayati ̵ causes watering of nose
    Chakshur virechayati ̵ causes lacrimation
    Sphutikaroti indriyani ̵ sharpens sense organs
    cure diseases love Alasaka (intestinal toper), Shvayathu (inflamation), Upachaya (obesity), Udarda (urticaria), Abhishyanda (chroni c conjunctivitis),
    Sneha Sveda Kleda malan upahanti ̵ helps in oleation, sweating, helps in elimination of sticky waste products
    Rochyayati Ashanam ̵ improves fod taste
    Kandur vinashayati ̵ relieves itching
    Vranan avasadayati ̵ pacify excesive growth of ulcers
    Krimen Hinasti ̵ kils germs and worms
    Mamsam vilikhati ̵ scrapes down muscle tisue
    Shonita Sanghatam bhinati ̵ breaks down blod clots
    Bandhan chinati ̵ breaks down bonding,
    Margan Vivrunoti ̵ clears body chanels
    Shleshmanam shamayati ̵ balances down Kapha
    Laghu, Ushna, Roksha ̵ light, hot and dry in nature.
    Efect of exces of pungent taste ̵
    Pumstvam Apahanti ̵ causes impotence
    Glapayati, Sadayati, Karshayati ̵ cause stupor, wearines, leanes
    Murchayati ̵ causes unconsciousnes
    Namayati ̵ causes body to bend forward
    Tamayati ̵ causes feling of darknes
    Bhramayati ̵ causes dizines
    Kantam Paridahati ̵ burning sensation in throat
    Sharera tapam upajanayati ̵ burning sensation in body
    Balam kshinoti ̵ depletes strength and imunity
    Trushnam janayati ̵ causes thirst
    Because of the dominance of Vayu and Agni mahabhutas they also cause gidines (bhrama), burning sensation (Davatu), tremor (kampa) piercing (toda) and stabing damage (bheda) in legs, hands, back etc. [43-iv]

    Action of Biter Taste ̵ Tikta Rasa

    Though not so marvelous to taste, when taken, it improves taste in the person.
    Vishaghna detoxifies
    krimighna ̵ kils germs and worms
    Murcha daha kandu kushta ̵ relieves unconsciousnes, burning sensation, itching and skin disorders
    relieves thirst, strengthens and stabilizes body
    Jvaraghna, Depana, pachana ̵ useful in fever, digestive and carminative
    Stanya shodhana ̵ cleanses, purifies breast milk
    Lekh ana ̵ scraping
    dries up exces moisture, stout, marow, lymph, pus, sweating, urine, Pita and Shleshma.
    Roksha, Sheta Laghu ̵ dry, cold and light
    Exces of Biter taste causes ̵
    Due to drynes, roughnes, non slimines, biter depletes Rasa dhatu (esence fraction of digestion), blod (rudhira), Mamsa (muscle tisue), Meda (fat tisue), Asthi (bone), Maja (marow), Shukra (semen, female reproductive system)
    Srotasam kharatvam upapadayati ̵ brings about roughnes to the body chanels
    depletes strength and imunity
    Karshayati ̵ depletes body weight
    Glapayati -wearines
    Mohayati ̵ unconsciousnes
    Bhramayati ̵ gidines
    Vadanam upashoshayati -drynes of mouth
    Vata Vikara anupajanayati -causes diseases of Vata imbalance [43-v]
    Action of Astringent Taste ̵ Kashaya rasa ̵
    Samshamana ̵ calming, healing
    Sangrahi ̵ absorbing, constipative
    Sandhanakara ̵ wound healing, bone healing
    Pedana ̵ causes presure on body parts
    Ropana ̵ healing
    Shoshana ̵ dries up moisture
    Stambhana ̵ blocking
    Shleshma raktapita prashamana ̵ balances down Kapha and Pita, useful in bleding disorders,
    Sharera Kleda Upayokta -uses up body moisture
    Roksha, Sheta, Laghu ̵ dry, col and light
    Exces of astringent taste causes
    Asyam shoshayati ̵ dries up mouth
    Hrudayam Pedayati ̵ causes presure distres in chest, heart
    Udaram adhmapayati ̵ distention of abdomen
    Vacham nigruhnati ̵ hurdle of spech
    Srotamsi avabadhnati ̵ constriction of chanels
    Shyavatvam apadayati ̵ imparts black complexion
    Pumstvam upahanti ̵ causes impotency
    Vishtabhya jaram gachati ̵ they get stuck in the gut and undergo digestion slowly
    causes hurdle to the pasage of flatus, urine, stol and semen
    Karshayati ̵ causes emaciation
    Glapayti ̵ wearines
    Tarshayati ̵ exces thirst
    Stambhayati ̵ causes stifnes
    Due to roughnes, drynes and non-slimines astringent taste produces diseases admire hemiplegia (pakshavadha), spasm (graha), convulsion(Apatanaka), facial paralysis (Ardita) etc, due to the vitiation of Vata.[43]
    Al the six Rasas, if properly dilapidated jointly or individualy, in right dose, bring about hapines to al living beings. Otherwise they are equaly harmful to al. So a wise person should use the m properly in acurate dose in order to maintain god result. [4]
    Determination of potency (Verya) of a substance based on Rasa (taste):
    The medicines and diet which are swet in rasa and Vipaka (taste after digestion) are of Sheta Verya (cold potency);
    Those with sour or pungent taste and Vipaka are of Ushna Verya (hot potency).[45]
    For example, milk and ghe, with swet taste and swet Vipaka, believe sheta Verya (cold potency)
    Chavya (piper chaba Hunter) and chitraka (lead wort) are pungent in taste, pungent Vipaka, and believe ushna verya (hot potency)[46-47]
    Substances whose Veryas (potency) are contradictory to Rasa (taste):
    Some substances having swet taste are of Ushna Verya (hot) e.g the meat of aquatic and marshy animals ̵ Anupa and Abja mamsa.
    Some substances having astringent and biter tastes are also of Ushnavirya (hot) e.g belonging to Mahat Panchamula (, Agnimantha, Shynoaka, Gambhari and Patala), Arka ̵ Calotropis Gigantea R.Br), Aguru ( Aquilaria agalocha Roxb.) and Guduchi -al these hav e biter taste. Similarly rock salt having saline taste has Ushna Verya (hot) Amalaka (Emblica oficinal’s Gaertn) having sour taste has Anushna Virya (not hot).[48-49]
    Variation in the action of substances of similar tastes:
    Some herbs having sour taste are absorbant ̵ e.g. Kapitha (Feronia limonia swingle);
    Some sour herbs are laxative, e.g Amalaka (Emblica oficinalis Gaertn).
    Even though herbs having pungent taste are generaly non-aphrodisiac, stil Pipali ( Piper longum Lin) and Shunti (Zingiber oficinale Rosc) having such taste are aphrodisiac.
    Astringent herbs are usualy Sheta Verya and absorbant, but Haritaki ( Terminalia chebula Lin) is an exception to it ̵ it is Ushnavirya and laxative.
    Thus is to not posible to explain the properties of al the drugs and diets simply in term of Rasa because individual drugs having joint tastes vary in relation to their properties. [50-52]
    Relative superiority of Taste s based on definite qualities:
    For Drynes quality (Roksha), Kashaya (astringent) is best, Katu (pungent) is medium and Tikta (biter) is inferior.
    For hotnes quality (Ushna) ̵ lavana (salt) is superior, sour is medium and Katu (pungent) is inferior
    For Unctuousnes, oilines (Snigdha) quality, Swet is superior, Pungent is medium and Biter is inferior
    For Coling quality (sheta), Swet ̵ Astringent ̵ Biter
    For Heavines (guru) ̵ Swet- Astringent ̵ salt
    For lightnes (laghu) ̵ biter ̵ Pungent ̵ Sour
    Some authors are of the view that among light drugs and diets, those having saline taste are inferior. Thus drugs and diets having saline taste are inferior both in heavines and lightnes. [53-56]
    The Vipaka of Substances:
    Vipaka (taste after digestion) of substances having pungent, biter and Astringent tastes is pungent (Katu Vipaka);
    Sour taste has Sour Vipaka (Amla Vipaka)
    S wet and salt tastes have Swet (Madhura Vipaka) . [57-58]
    Role of tastes in evacuation of feces:
    Owing to their unctuousnes (oilines), swet, sour and saline tastes are useful for the elimination of flatus, urine and stol.
    On the other hand, pungent, biter and astringent tastes create dificulty in the elimination of flatus, stol, urine and semen in view of their drying property. [59-60]
    Action of Vipaka on Dosha and Evacuation:
    Katu Vipaka (pungent) agravates Vata, reduces semen and obstructs the pasage of stol and urine.
    Madhura (Swet) Vipaka agravates Kapha, promotes semen and helps in the proper elimination of stol and urine.
    Similarly (sour) Amla Vipaka agravates Pita, reduces semen and helps in the acurate elimination of stol and urine.
    Swet Vipaka is heavy: pungent and sour ones are light. [61-6]
    The relative superiority or inferiority of numerous types of Vipaka can be determined on the basis of the rel ative superiority and inferiority of the profuse properties of diferent drugs and diets.[63]
    The eight and the Two types of Verya:
    Some opine there are eight types of Verya ̵
    Mridu (mild) X Tekshna (sharp),
    Guru (heavy) X Laghu (light)
    Snigdha (unctuous) X Roksha (dry)
    Ushna (hot) X Sheta (cold).
    Some others hold the view that it is only of two types viz, Sheta Verya ̵ chily potency and Ushna Verya (hot).
    The term potency (Verya) represents that aspect of drugs and diets by morality of which they manifest their therapeutic action . There canot be any action without potency; al actions are caused by potency (Verya).[64-65]
    Determination of Rasa, Vipaka and Virya:
    Rasa or taste can be inevitable imediately after their contact with the tongue;
    Vipaka is sure by the action (in the form of agravation of Kapha etc).
    Virya can be sure in betwen the stages of Rasa and Vipaka, while in as sociation with the body and or even imediately after coming into contact with the body.[6]
    Definition of Prabhava:
    Where there is similarity in two drugs in species to their Rasa (taste), Vipaka and Virya (Potency) but in spite of this similarity these two drugs difer with regard to their action, the distinctive feature responsible for their distinctive efects not suported by their taste, Vipaka and potency is regarded as ‘ Prabhava’ or Specific action.[67]
    Examples of Prabhava and the supremacy of Prabhava:
    Both Chitraka ̵ Leadword ̵ Plumbago zeylanica and Danti (Baliospermum montanum) are pungent in Pungent Vipaka and Ushna v erya (hot potency). But Danti acts as a purgative while chitraka does not. The purgative imprint of Danti, therefore, can be explained only by taking recourse to its Prabhava or specific action.
    The anti- toxic property of toxins, actions leading to the upward and or downward elimination of D oshas (Vamana, Virechana) and profuse efects of precious noble stones (Mani) when used over the body al these are due to their specific action which are beyond al plausible explanations. Hence, they are said to act because of their Prabhava ̵ special action.
    Ayurvedic Pharmacology ̵ How a medicine acts? ̵
    Certain drugs manifest their action by morality of their taste:
    Some by ethic of their potency (Verya)
    Some act by the virtue of Guna (quality) or Vipaka (taste conversion after digestion).
    Some act by Prabhava (specific action).
    In case the taste (Rasa), Vipaka, Verya and Prabhava are al of equal strength, by nature,
    taste is superseded by Vipaka,
    both of them in turn are superseded by potency and
    al the above are dominated by Prabhava ̵ special action. [68-72]
    Characteristics of the Six Tastes:
    Characteristc features of swet taste ̵
    Swetnes is inevitable fr om
    Snehana ̵ oilines, unctuousnes,
    Prenana ̵ deliciousnes,
    Ahlada ̵ delightfunes
    Mardava ̵ softnes.
    When taken in, it pervades al over the mouth as it is adhering to mouth.
    Characteristc features of Sour taste ̵
    Sournes is unavoidable from
    Dantaharsha ̵ tingling sensation in teth
    Mukha srava ̵ Salivation,
    Svedana ̵ Sweating,
    Mukha Bodhana ̵ Clarity of mouth
    Vidaha ̵ burning sensation in the mouth and throat.
    Characteristc features of salt taste ̵
    Salt gets quickly disolved in the mouth resulting in stickines (kleda),
    Vishyanda ̵ moistnes
    Mardava ̵ softnes
    Mukhasya Vidaha ̵ produce burning sensation in the mouth.
    Characteristc features of pungent taste ̵
    Pungent taste is unavoidable by-
    iritation and aflict in tongue, burning and watering in the mouth, nose and eyes.
    Characteristc features of biter taste ̵
    Biter taste is ascertained by ̵
    weakening of taste perception of the tongue.
    Such substances by themselves are not tasteful ;
    Causes non-slimines, clarity (Vaishadya)
    Shosha ̵ drynes of tongue and
    Prahlada ̵ delightnes.
    Characteristc features of astringent taste ̵
    Astringent taste is characterized by
    Vaishadya ̵ non-slimines,
    Stambha ̵ stifnes,
    Jadya ̵ inaction in the tongue and
    Badhnateva Kantham ̵ prevent the throat as it were; they are not god for heart. [73-79]
    Agnivesha’s question on unwholesome medicine and diets:
    After Lord Atreya explained the above theory, Agnivesha inquired, “Oh! Lord, we maintain listened to what you gain stated about the medicines and diets- their properties and actions together with al relevant details. We would admire to know in detail about the unwholesome properties of sure diets (that is alone which cause vitiation of the Dhatus (body tisues)”[80]
    Lord Atreya’s answer ̵ Incompatible combinations
    The substances that are unwholesome to the body tisues and Doshas, contradict the body tisues.
    1. Kanichit Paraspara guna virudhani ̵ Some act against the health, due to their mutualy contradictory qualities;
    2. Kanichit Samyogat ̵ Some act against to health, by the combination of two (though, as individual substances, they may not be oposite to each other in qualities.)
    3. Samskarat ̵ Some by the method of preparation;
    4. Desha Kala Matradibhihi ̵ Some by ethic of the place (land and body), time and dose and
    5. Svabhavat ̵ Some others by their inherent) nature.[81]
    Examples:
    Milk with fish ̵
    Fish should not be taken together with milk, both of them acquire swet taste, but due to the contradiction in their potency (fish is ho t and milk is cold) they vitiate the blod and obstruct the chanels of circulation
    Having listened to Lord Atreya, Bharadvaja said to Agnivesha, “One can taken al kinds of fish except Chilichima together with milk. The Chilichima fish has scales; its eyes are red and it has red place al over the body; it is love the Rohita (red carp fish) fish and moves on the ground. If this fish is taken with milk, it is liable to cause constipation and diseases relating to blod and it may even cause death.[82-83]
    Lord Atreya while disagreing with the above view said, “One must not hold milk alongwith fish specialy with Cilicima type of fish. Cilicima fish considerably obstructs the chanels of circulation and causes the above mentioned diseases whose symptoms are very clear; it also produces Amavisa(toxin due to coarse digestion as wel as metabolism).
    Meat combinations ̵ Meat of domestic, marshy and aquatic animals (Gramya, Anupa Audaka Pishita) should not be taken together with honey, sesame seds, sugar candy, milk, black gram (Masha), radish, lotus stalk or germinated grains (Viruda dhanya). By doing so, one gets aflicted with deafnes, blindnes, trembling, los of inteligence los of voice and nasal voice, it may even cause death.
    One should not taken vegetable of Pushkara( Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn) and Katukarohini ̵ Picrorhiza kuroa or meat of Kapota (dove) fried in mustard oil together with honey and milk, for this obstructs chanels of circulation and causes dilatation of blod vesels, epilepsy, Shankhaka (a disease of the head characterized by acute aflict in temporal region), Galaganda (Scrofula) or even death.
    Milk combinations ̵ Milk should not be taken after the intake of radish, garlic, Keshnagandha (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Arjaka ( Ocimum gratisimum Lin), Sumukha Surasa (Tulsi ̵ Holy basil), etc. this may cause skin diseases.
    Leaves of Jatuka(Ferula narthex) or ripe fruit of Nikucha (Artocarpus lakocha Roxb). Should not be taken with honey and milk; it may cause los of strength complexion, and semen, sterility and other serious types of diseases which may lead to death.
    Ripe fruit of Nikucha (Artocarpus lakocha Roxb) should not be taken with the soup of Masha (black gram), sugar candy and ghe because they are mutualy contradictory.
    Milk with sour fruits ̵ Amra ̵ mango, Amrataka ̵ Spondias pinata Kurz, Matulunga ̵ Lemon variety ̵ (Citrus decumana / Citrus limon Li n), Nikucha (Artocarpus Lakocha Roxb), Karamarda (Carisa Karandas Lin), Mocha( Salmalia malbarica Schet Endl), Dantashatha (Citrus medica Lin), Badara ̵ Zizyphus jujuba, Koshamra Bhavya(Dilenia indica Lin), Jambava (Syzygium cumini Skels), Kapitha (Feronia limonia), Tintidi (Tamarindus indica Lin), meat of Paravata (Pigeon), Akshoda ( Juglans regia Lin), Panasa (Jack fruit), Narikela (Coconut), Dadima ̵ Pomegranate, Amalaka (Emblica oficinalis Gaerth) and such other substantial and liquid materials which are sour in taste become mutualy contradictory when taken with milk.
    Similarly Kangu (Setaria italic Beruv), Vanaka Makustha (Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq), Kulatha (Horse gram), Masha (black gram) Nishpava (pea), when taken with milk are mutualy contradictory.
    Padma (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn); Leaves of Utarika, Sharkara type of wine, Maireya type of wine and honey, if taken together are unwholesome and they agravate, Doshas specialy Vata.
    Meat of Haritala bird fried with mustard oil is unwholesome and they agravate Dohsas, especialy Pita.
    Payasa (milk prepration) when taken with Mantha (thin gruel) is unwholesome and they agravate Doshas, specialy Kapha.
    Upodika (Basela rubra Lin), prepared with the paste of Tila (Sesame sed) causes diarhorea.
    Meat of a crane either with Varuni type of wine or Kulmasha (Paste of Barley mixed up with hot water and slightly boiled so as to form a cake) is unwholesome; again if fired with lard, it wil cause instantaneous death.
    Meat of peacock roasted on a castor spit, if burnt with castor wod fuel and mixed with castor oil causes instantaneous death. Similarly the meat of Haridraka r oasted on a turmeric spit and burnt with the fuel of turmeric wod and/or when mixed with ashes, dust and honey, causes instantaneous death.
    Pipali – Long peper fruit, prepared with fish stout and Kakamachi (Black nightshade ̵ Solanum nigrum), mixed with honey causes death. Hot honey or intake of honey by a person aflicted with heat causes death.
    Honey and ghe, Honey ̵ hot water ̵
    Honey and ghe or honey and rain water, both in water both in equal quantity,
    honey together with the seds of Pushkara (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn)
    intake of hot water with honey,
    Bhalataka (Semecarpus anacardium Lin.) together with hot water;
    Kampilaka (Malotus Philipinesis Muel Arg). boiled with of Bhasa (beared Vulture), roasted with the spit or fire-brand are unwholesome. So everything in acordance with the questions has ben explained. [84]
    Definition of unwholesome diet ̵ Ahita ̵
    Al drugs diets which dislodge the numerous Doshas from their acurate area, but do not expel them out of the body are to be regarded as unwholesome. [85]
    18 Types of Virudha ̵
    1. Desha Virudha ̵
    Place ̵ Intake of dry and ken substance in deserts; oily and cold substance in marshy land is establish contradictory diet habit.
    2. Kala Virudha ̵
    Time contradictory diet habit ̵ Intake of chily and dry substances in winter; pungent and hot substance in the sumer.
    3. Agni Virudha ̵
    Power of Digestion contradictory diet ̵ Intake of heavy fod when the power of digestion is mild (mandagni); intake of light fod when the power of digestion is ken (Tekshnagni). Similarly intake of fod at various with iregular and normal power of digestion descend under this category.
    4. Matra Virudha ̵
    Dos e specific diet contradiction ̵ Intake of honey and ghe in equal quantity.
    5. Satmya Virudha ̵
    Habit specific diet contradiction- Intake of swet and cold substance by persons acustomed to pungent and hot substances.
    6. Dosha Virudha ̵
    Dosha specific diet contradiction- Utilization of drugs, diets and regimen having similar qualities with Dosas but at variance with the habit of the individual.
    7. Samskara Virudha ̵
    Method of preparation specific diet contradiction:- Drugs and diets which when prepared in a particular way design poisonous efects, for precise, meat of peacock (Shikhi mamsa) roasted on a castor spit.
    8. Verya Virudha ̵
    Potency specific diet contradiction- Substances having frosty potency in amalgam with those of hot potency.
    9. Koshta Virudha ̵
    Bowel specific diet contradiction ̵
    Administration of a mild purgative in a smal dose for a person of with exhausting) bowel (Krura Koshta) and administration of strong purgatives fod for a person with soft bowel (Mrudu Koshta)
    10. Avastha Virudha ̵

    Stage specific contradiction:
    Indulgence in Vata agravating diet after physical point up, sexual intercourse, exercise.
    Indulgence in Kapha agravating diet by a lethargic, slepy person.
    1. Krama Virudha ̵
    Order specific contradiction ̵ If a person takes fod before his bowel and urinary blader are clear (empty) or when he does not acquire apetite or after his hunger has ben highly agravated.
    12. Parihara Virudha ̵
    Prescription specific contradiction
    ̵ Intake of hot things after taking pork
    13. Upachara Virudha ̵
    Treatment specific contradiction ̵ Taking frigid things after taking ghe.
    14. Paka Virudha ̵
    Coking contradiction ̵ Preparation of fod with bad or depraved fuel, under-coking, over-coking or burning during the proces of preparation.
    15. Samyoga Virudha ̵
    Combination ̵ Intake of sour substance with milk.
    16. Hrudaya Virudha ̵
    Palatability :- Any substance which is not pleasant in taste.
    17. Sampat Virudha ̵
    Richnes of quality:- Intake of substance that are not mature, over mature or purified.
    18. Vidhi Virudha ̵
    Rules of eating :- Taking meals in public [86-101]
    Efect of taking incompatible fods ̵
    Intake of unwholesome fod is responsible for the
    Shandya ̵ causation of sterility ,
    Andhya ̵ blindnes,
    visarpa (herpes, spreading type of skin disease),
    Dakodara ̵ as citis,
    Visphota ̵ eruptions,
    Unmada ̵ insanity,
    Bhagandara ̵ fistula,
    Murcha ̵ fainting,
    Mada ̵ intoxication,
    Adhmana ̵ bloating
    Galagraha ̵ spasmodic hurdle in throat,
    Pandu ̵ anemia, initial stage of liver disorder
    Amavisha- poisoning due to Ama (indigestion and altered metabolism),
    Kilasa type of skin disease,
    Kushta ̵ skin disorders
    Grahani ̵ sprue, IBS,
    Shotha ̵ oedema,
    Amlapita ̵ acid dyspepsia,
    Jvara ̵ fever,
    Penasa ̵ rhinitis,
    Santana Dosha ̵ foetal diseases and
    Mrutyu ̵ death. [102-103]
    Treatment for disorders of incompatible fod and diet habits ̵
    Diseases caused by the intake of unwholesome diets and drugs can be cured by Vamana ̵ emesis, Virechana ̵ purgation or administration of antidotes and by taking prophylactic measures.[104]
    Virechana ̵ Purgation,
    Vamana &#821 ; emesis,
    antidotes and prophylaxis- these four cure the diseases caused/ to be caused by the intake of unwholesome drugs and diets.
    If an individual is habituated to the intake of unwholesome medicines and diets or if they are taken in smal quantity or intake by a person having strong digestive power or by a tender person or by the one who has undergone oleation therapy (Snehakarma) or who has strong physique due to physical exercise, the wholesomenes of the profuse drugs diets does not acquire any imprint. [105-106]
    Sumary ̵
    Discusion among the sages about the tastes, properties and actions of drugs of various categories, number of drugs depending upon their tastes, factors determining the number of tastes; definitions of taste (rasa) and Anurasa (after or subsidiary taste); definition of atributes adore Para (superiority) etc; factors leading to the creation of six tastes out of the five Mahabhutas; qualities responsible for the upward and downwar d physical action of tastes; various permutations and combinations of six tastes; atributes and actions of numerous types along with their exceptions. Superiority, mediocrity and inferiority of tastes for producing heavines etc. definitions of Vipaka and Prabhava (specific action); determination of the number of Virya (potency); specific manifestations of the drugs having six tastes when administered; mutualy contradictory drugs and diets; cause of contradiction and their specific manifestations; treatment of diseases produced by the intake of drugs and diets having mutualy contradtictory properties- al these acquire ben discused in this chapter entitled “Atreya bhadrakapyiya Adhyaya”.[107-13]
    Thus ends the twenty sixth chapter on of Sutrasthana of Charaka Sahmita, Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka.[26]
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