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    Ayurveda In Puranas And Upa Puranas: Description of References

    Article by Dr Manasa, BAMS
    Puranas are Hindu religious texts of ancient times and are parts of Vedas. They include naratives related to the history of the Universe from creation to destruction and the genealogies of kings, heroes, sages and demigods. They were primarily composed in Sanskrit, but also in regional languages, several of these texts are named after Hindu deities such as Vishnu, Shiva and Devi.
    Table of Contents
    Introduction
    Categorization
    Upa Purana
    Ayurveda and Puranas
    Brahma Purana
    Padma Purana
    Vishnu Purana
    Brahmavaivarta Purana
    Skandha Purana and Ayurveda
    Agni Purana and Ayurveda
    Matsya Purana and Ayurveda
    Garuda Purana and Ayurveda
    Introduction
    The Puranas genre of literature is found in both Hinduism and Jainism. Puranas are related to Ayurveda, the most ancient medical science known to the Earth.
    The 4th century would be definitely considered as a turning point for the Indian History. The popularization of Vedas and Hindu philosophy was acelerated through the publication of a number of Puranas and the epics. The object of Puranas is to represent natural descriptions from Vedas and some historical events in the form of stories. The compilation of Puranas was atributed to Vyasa, the author of Mahabharata.
    Categorization
    There are more than 180 Puranas existing in Hindu literature. Among them the consequent 18 can be considered as ‘Maha puranas’ and are categorized as under:
    Brahma Puranas:
    Brahma Purana
    Bhavishyat Purana
    Agni Purana
    Brahmavaivarta Purana
    Brahmanda Purana
    Padma Purana
    Vaishnava Puranas:
    Vishnu Purana
    Narada (Naradiya) Purana
    Vamana Purana
    Matsya Purana
    Garuda Purana
    Srimad Bhagavata Purana
    Shaiva Puranas:
    Shiva Purana
    Linga Purana
    Kurma Purana
    Markandeya Purana
    Skandha Purana
    Varaha Purana
    Upa Purana
    Upa Puranas – Upa Puranas are considered to be subtypes of the main 18 Puranas or can be categorized as trivial treatises which are valued as apt as Maha Puranas. The 18 Upa Puranas are as below mentioned –
    Sanatkumara Purana
    Narasimha Purana
    Brihanaradiya Purana
    Shivarahasya Purana
    Durvasa Purana
    Kapila Purana
    Vamana Purana
    Bhargava Purana
    Varuna Purana
    Kalki Purana
    Samba Purana
    Nandi Purana
    Surya Purana
    Parasara Purana
    Vashishta Pu rana
    Devibhagavata Purana
    Ganesha Purana
    Hamsa Purana
    Ayurveda and Puranas
    The propagation of the scrutinize of Ayurveda medicine was atempted through Puranas only. The benefits of establishing fre hospitals were praised in many Puranas. This shows the importance of medical care and the facilities towards them available in those times. In those days, we can learn that along with the medicines, fod also was frely suplied to the patients.
    The progresion of Ayurveda was steady in those days.
    Ayurveda was taught as a compulsory subject along with the studies of Vedas and Shastras.
    Read related:References Of Vata Disorders In Vedas, Upanishad, Puranas
    Brahma Purana
    Origin of Jwara – In Brahma purana Jwara or fever is said to believe its origin from RudraKopa or arouse of Lord Shiva. This explanation holds in line with the famous ‘Daksha Yagna’ a fire sacrifice conducted by King Daksha, the father-in-law of Lord Shiva and father of Sati. Daksha doesn’t cal Lord Shiva to the privileged event, Sati gets upset on her husband being ignored, goes to the fire sacrifice in spite of being denied by Shiva, questions her father about the discrimination, insulted by her father and Sati jumps into the fire giving her life. Shiva being upset by the los of Sati sends his servant caled Rudra to destroy the Daksha Yagna. Fever or Jwara was suposed to believe its origin from the netle of Lord Rudra. The same thought has ben explained in Ayurveda in ‘Jwara Prakarana’ or the chapter that deals with fever and its treatment.
    Soma has ben explained as the king of herbs. The same medicine has ben highlighted to acquire medicinal properties in Ayurveda
    The religious importance of Ashwatha tre was also realized in Brahma Purana. The same tre has ben given religious and medicinal importance in Ayurveda.
    In this Purana, it is said that the power of amulets, mantras etc are beyond the perception of human beings. Ayurveda has also old these incredible and mystic things in healing many diseases and have clasified their inclusion under ‘Daiva Vyapashraya Chikitsa’ or the ‘treatments under the control of cherish power’.
    Padma Purana
    Padma Purana is the second bigest Purana after Skandha Purana. It contains 5,0 shlokas (verses).
    Herbs mentioned in Padma Purana – Many herbs or plants believe ben described in Padma Purana in many contexts. Some of the herbs mentioned in this Purana are:
    Plaksha (Ficus lacor)
    Nyagrodha (Fi cus benghalensis)
    Kadali (Plantain)
    Tulasi (Holy Basil)
    Amalaki (Emblica oficinalis)
    Gugulu (Comiphora mukul)
    Kusa (Desmostachya bipinata)
    Kasa (Sacharum spontaneum)
    Durva(Cynodon dactylon)
    Yava (Barley)
    Vrihi (rice)
    Pundarika (Red variety of Nymphaea lotus) etc
    Basic principles of Ayurveda – Many principles on which the Ayurveda medical scheme works maintain ben mentioned in Padma Purana also. Some of them are as below mentioned –
    Pancha Mahabhutas
    Tridoshas
    Derangement of doshas causes diseases
    Jwara is mentioned as a comon disorder
    Diseases love Kushta (skin diseases, leprosy), Swithra (leucoderma), Kshaya (emaciation, tisue destruction, consumption, tuberculosis, phthisis), Shwasa (dyspnoea, shortnes of breath), Kasa (cough, bronchitis), Apasmara (memory related diseases, epilepsy), Shula (colic) etc are mentioned in Padma Purana
    By worshiping the Surya or Sun God, a number of diseases such as Kamala (jaundice), vishama jwara (malaria etc fevers), ashmari (urinary stones) etc can be cured. By disrespecting Surya, Kushta or skin diseases ocur. Deva gharshana (disregarding the Gods) has ben mentioned as one of the causative factors of Kushta in Ayurveda also.
    Preservation of dead body in Taila Droni (oil filed tubs) has ben explained
    Concept of development of foetus (garbha vridhi) has ben explained as in Ayurveda
    Fod and regimen (ahara-vikara) of the pregnant woman (garbhini paricharya) is also described in Purana
    Dinacharya (daily regimen) and Sadvritha (ethics of human beings) were also described in Padma Purana
    Read related:Ayurveda in C hanakya’s Arthashastra
    Vishnu Purana
    The below mentioned aspects resembling the material found in Ayurveda texts has ben explained in Vishnu Purana –
    Ayurveda Avatarana (origin of Ayurveda),
    Emergence of Dhanwantari
    Genealogy of Divodasa
    Mention of herbs such as Nyagrodha (Ficus bengalensis), Kadali (Plantain), Kusa (Desmostachya bipinata), Kasa (Sacharum spontaneum), Plaksha (Ficus lacor) etc
    Elaborate explanation of Dinacharya (daily regimen), Ritu Charya (Seasonal regimen) and Sadvrita (practices of godnes, ethics and code of living, wide living, lifestyle) etc
    Diet and dietetics are explained; Dietetic preparations adore Saktu, Apupa and Payasa etc acquire ben explained
    Diseases have ben clasified as Sharerika (diseases pertaining to body or physical diseases) and Manasika (diseases of mind, psychological or ment al disorders) rogas
    Somatic diseases mentioned in Vishnu Purana are:
    Jwara (fever)
    Siraha Shula (headache)
    Pratishyaya (rhinitis, frigid, runing nose)
    Shula (colic)
    Gulma (abdominal tumours)
    Arshas (piles)
    Shwayathu (sweling, inflamation, oedema)
    Shwasa (dyspnoea, shortnes of breath),
    Chardi (vomiting)
    Atisara (diarhoea)
    Kushta (skin disorders) etc
    Brahmavaivarta Purana
    This Purana is divided into 4 sections namely Brahma, Prakriti, Ganesha and Krishna
    Origin of Ayurveda acording to Brahmavaivarta Purana:
    In Brahmavaivarta Purana it is found that Daksha Prajapati taught Ayurveda to Brahma and he, in turn, taught it to Bhaskara or Sun God. Surya taught Ayurveda to Dhanwantari and other 16 disciples. They al wrote separate samhitas (texts or treatises) on their names and spre ad the medical knowledge to the next generations. In this way the origin of Ayurveda difers from the other Ayurvedic texts wherein Brahma or the creator himself was the first person to create Ayurveda and propagate it. The other characters who are explained in the descent of Ayurveda are almost the same who acquire ben mentioned in Ayurveda.
    Rasayana ̵ was considered to be the best medicine among al the oushadhis (medicines). It is infered that mercury and its preparations (rasa shastra) might acquire ben the medicines of choice of the physicians of that time.
    Various plants and parts old for medicinal uses were also clearly mentioned in the Purana
    Tantric practices – were prevalent and richly practiced in those days
    The unqualified physicians were not honoured
    Skandha Purana and Ayurveda
    The subsequent topics explained in Skandha Purana mimic the explanation of the same topics found in Ayurveda –
    Description pertaining to the types of physicians
    Qualities of an ideal physician
    Various types of instruments and equipment required for the practice of medicine
    Suitable kep for construction of a hospital
    Plan of the hospital
    Duties, responsibilities and ethics of medical profesion
    Helping the diseased was considered as the best religious act in those days
    Agni Purana and Ayurveda
    Agni Purana is a text of encyclopaedic character. It contains materials pertaining to al the branches of Indian tradition and culture including medicines. The below mentioned topics dealt in Agni Purana have resemblance with the similar topics dealt in Ayurveda treatises –
    Origin of Ayurveda and its branches
    Description of Pancha Mahabhutas, Pancha Gn anendriyas, Trigunas, Tridoshas, Sapta Dhatus etc
    Explanation of development of foetus, anatomical structures and constitution of the body acording to the dominance of Tridoshas
    Factors that cause psycho-somatic disorders, signs and symptoms and the treatment for the same
    Example: Shadanga Paneya in Pita Jwara, Nasal administration of Durva Swarasa in Raktapita or epistaxis, Use of Guduchi Swarasa in Vatarakta etc
    The explanation of the concept of dravyas (medicinal herbs), their gunas (properties and qualities) and the kalpanas (various types of pharmaceutical preparations using those herbs)
    Types of Visha (poisonous substances), their symptoms and the treatment for poisoning
    Diseases pertaining to horses, elephants and their treatment
    Use of parada (mercury) and other inorganic substances admire swarna (gold), rajata (silver), tamra (coper), ayas or loha (iron), kamsya (bras), Naga (lead) and Vanga (tin) etc
    Identification of ratna varga (precious gems) and their uses
    Matsya Purana and Ayurveda
    In Matsya Purana we can find the minutiae pertaining to selection of suly for building houses, the rules of hygiene, construction of houses, swiming pols and playgrounds
    Garuda Purana and Ayurveda
    It is one of the highly praised Puranas. It consists of 3 divisions, namely – Achara Khanda, Preta Khanda and Brahma Khanda.
    Among the 3 sections Achara Khanda is the section which discuses medicine in elaboration. It has 240 chapters. Most of them comprise of subjects including medicine.
    Below mentioned medical topics have ben discused in Garuda Purana which resemble those explained in Ayurveda –
    Basics principles of Ayurveda – Tridoshas, Sapta Dhatus, Trimalas, their places, causes of their vitiation, signs and symptoms maintain ben elaborately explained. Diferent rasas (tastes), their guna (qualities), Rasa Panchaka are also explained. The four limbs of treatment namely Vaidhya (doctor), dravya (medicines), Upastha (care takers, nursing staf) and rogi (patient) and their qualities have ben described in detail. Description of Prakriti (body constitution) is explained in a similar way as found explained in Ayurvedic treatises.
    Swasthavritha – Dinacharya (daily regimen) is described in a separate chapter along with Sadvrita.
    Visha vignana – Toxicology also has ben dealt in detail in Garuda Purana. The branch of knowledge of poisons and their treatment is available in Garuda Purana. Kashyapa Tantra was an authority in those days, and wel versed in both types of treatment such as Mant ra (holy hymns) and Oushadhis (herbal medicines).
    Vikriti Vignana (Pathology and General Medicine) – Causative factors, pathogenesis, and the treatment of many diseases were dealt elaborately in a number of chapters. The diseases mentioned are –
    Jwara (fever)
    Raktapita (haemorhagic diseases)
    Kasa (cough)
    Shwasa (dyspnoea, shortnes of breath)
    Hika (hicough)
    Yakshma (tuberculosis, wasting diseases)
    Arochaka (anorexia)
    Hridroga (heart diseases)
    Madatyaya (intoxication)
    Arshas (piles, haemorhoids)
    Atisara (diarhoea)
    Grahani (inflamatory bowel disease, iritable bowel syndrome, sprue)
    Mutraghata (urinary obstruction)
    Prameha (urinary disorders, diabetes)
    Vidradhi (absces)
    Kushta (skin disorders)
    Vata roga (vata disorders) etc
    Garbha Sharira (Embryology) – Development of foetus and the foundation of body are described in detail.
    Dravya and ratna ̵ Many medicinal plants and gems are also explained with their medicinal values at various places in the Purana.
    Suming up
    Going through the historical and mythological evidences, we learn that Ayurveda existed and was practiced through many centuries. It either had an impact on other systems and civilizations or was influenced by other sciences. Vedas and the Puranas are acurate references of Indian culture and tradition which existed in ancient times and which influenced the civilizations to advance. Knowing that references pertaining to Ayurveda are found embeded in these treatises and that Ayurveda was old to heal many souls in those times is realy a mater of pride for Ayurveda physicians and folowers!
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