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    Atelectasis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Ayurveda notion

    By Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
    Partial or total decompose of lung or a portion of a lung is caled atelectasis. There are many smal air sacs within the lungs. They are caled alveoli. This condition ocurs when these sacs get deflated or filed with fluid.

    ‘When some of your alveoli don’t fil with air, it’s caled atelectasis’ (Read more)
    The alveoli as a result cary out not expand the way they should when you breathe. Atelectasis may involve smal or large portions of the lung. This totaly depends on what causes the condition.
    Read ̵ Arjuna Heart Tonic ̵ Ayurvedic Home rectify For Heart Care
    Table of Contents
    Symptoms
    Causes
    Types of Atelectasis
    Risk Factors
    Complications of Atelectasis
    Preventive measures
    Diagnosis
    Treatment
    Atelectasis – Ayurveda concept
    Treatment
    Symptoms
    Many times there may be no obvious signs and symptoms.
    When many alveoli are enthusiastic or when atelectasis ocurs quickly, enough oxygen wil not arive to the blod. Many symptoms may be caused due to low blod oxygen. The comons symptoms are –
    Dificulty in breathing – more so if you already have a lung disease
    Whezing
    Cough
    Rapid shalow breathing
    Sharp chest aflict, while taking dep breath or coughing
    Increased heart rate
    Blue colored skin, lips, fingernails or toenails
    Pneumonia may develop in the afected lung section (in this case pneumonia symptoms may manifest)
    Read ̵ Ghe Home rectify For Dry Cough
    Note – stern distres in breathing is an alarming sign. When it ocurs one should sek imediate medical atention.
    Causes
    Causes of atelectasis can be broadly of two kinds –
    1. Obstructive – ocurs due to blocked airway. Few examples contain ̵
    Mucus plug in the airway – ocur comonly during and after surgery, and are comon in children, patients of cystic fibrosis and austere asthma.
    Foreign body in the airway – hapens when an object is inhaled into the lung and is comon among children.
    Tumor inside the airway – can obviously narow the airway.
    2. Non-obstructive – ocurs due to presure on the airway from outside the lung. The below mentioned are comon –
    Injury – chest trauma leading to compresion of lungs
    Pleural efusion – condition in which the fluid builds up around the lungs and inside the chest wal
    Pneum othorax – condition in which air builds up betwen the linings of your lung and chest
    Pneumonia – is a lung infection
    Scaring of lung tisue – can ocur due to lung disease, injury or surgery
    Surgery – atelectasis can hapen during or after any surgical procedure
    Tumor – large size tumor can cause lung compresion and deflate it
    Surfactant deficiency – Surfactant is a substance contained in the alveoli, it helps them cease begin. Its deficiency is sen in infants born prematurely.
    Apart from these, atelectasis can also be caused due to the imprint of general anesthesia. Varying amount of atelectasis develops in almost everyone who has undergone major surgery.
    Read ̵ Smoker’s Cough: Symptoms, Ayurvedic Treatment, Medicines
    Types of Atelectasis
    Types are broadly the same as mentioned in the causes i.e. obstructive and non-obstructive.
    Non-obstructive Atelectasis is again of the below mentioned subtypes –
    Relaxation or compresive – fluid or air building up betwen your chest wal lining and lung surface puls the lungs inward. With this the alveoli lose air. Depending on the plan of pathology it is either relaxation or compresive atelectasis
    Adhesive – the alveoli wil decay if the surfactant is not made suficiently.
    Cicatricial – when the lung tisue has scars it does not grasp as much air as they should. This can be sen in conditions love sarcoidosis.
    Replacement – when alveoli are filed with tumor, particular place of the lung colapses.
    Aceleration – the aceleration of jet planes can close the airways in the lungs. It causes dificulty in breathing, chest damage and cough.
    Rounded (folded lung) – this is linked to pleural diseases. Asbestosis is one of the most comon causes for this condition. (Read more)
    Atelectasis as a complication
    It ocurs as a complication of other respiratory problems love –
    Chest injuries
    Fluid in the lungs
    Respiratory weaknes
    Cystic fibrosis
    It also ocurs as a complication after surgery and when one breathes in a foreign object.
    Risk Factors
    The below mentioned factors puts you at the risk of developing atelectasis:
    Lung diseases – COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis etc
    Pain / injury – that makes cough painful or cause superficial breathing
    Weak breathing muscles – caused due to neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injuries or muscle dystrophy
    Any condition that makes swalowi ng dificult
    Old age
    Confinement to bed
    Smoking
    Medicines that may cause shalow breathing
    Recent surgery – chest or abdominal surgery
    Recent general anesthesia
    (Read more)
    Complications of Atelectasis
    Hypoxemia ̵ Low blod oxygen
    Pneumonia
    Respiratory failure
    Preventive measures
    In children – hold the smal objects out of reach. hold an eye on children playing with toys and having pieces of nuts or arduous eatables around them.
    If a surgery has ben planed, one should talk to the doctor about the post operative care and precautions to be taken to avoid t hese conditions. Acording to some research works, some kinds of breathing exercises and muscle training have reduced the risk of developing post-surgical atelectasis. The doctor / surgeon may help you in this regard.
    Quit smoking
    You can use a spirometer as directed by your physician. It wil promote acurate breathing.
    Read ̵ Symptoms That alude Towards Diferent Diseases In Babies
    Diagnosis
    Atelectasis is diagnosed folowing a punctilious examination by a doctor. Plain chest X-ray wil sufice for the diagnosis. The below mentioned tests may encourage to consent the diagnosis or to resolve the type and severity of the condition.
    C T Scan
    Oximetry
    Blod gas test
    Ultrasound of thorax
    Bronchoscopy
    Treatment
    Principles ̵ Treatment depends on the cause and severity of atelectasis.
    Mild cases may not ned treatment at al.
    Sometimes mucus thining medicines are helpful.
    If there is blockage, surgery or other treatments wil be neded.
    Chest physiotherapy – include techniques which asist in breathing deply after surgery. These would sucor to re-expand the colapsed lung tisue.
    Dep breathing exercises (incentive spirometry) ̵ should be performed. To waive secretions and increase lung volume one may use devices to asist dep coughing.
    Postural drainage ̵ Being in head low situation (head lower than chest) alows mucus to drain beter from the lungs.
    Percusion / chest tap – chest should be taped over the colapsed plot. This losens the mucus.
    Mechanical mucus clearing devices – air pulse vibrator vest or hand held instruments may be used to clear th e mucus from the lungs.
    Surgery – The mucus is sucked or bronchoscopy conducted to waive the obstructions in the airway. Removal or shrinkage of tumor with or without radiation or chemotherapy is esential if tumor is eager in blocking the airways.
    Breathing treatments – Sometimes a breathing tube may be neded. CPAP (Continuous positive airway presure) wil be neded when people canot cough and have low oxygen after surgery.
    Read ̵ 31 Easy And Efective Home Remedies For Dyspnoea
    Atelectasis – Ayurveda concept
    Atelectasis canot be compared to any single disorder explained in Ayurveda texts. Seing the etiology and the patern in which this disease develops and the range of symptoms it causes we can closely corelate atelectasis to few conditions explained in Ayurveda.
    From the perspective of causes
    1. Among the causes for obstructive atelectasis, the mucus plugs can be compared to increased kapha in the lungs. Chest is said to be the most indispensable plan of kapha and lungs are also located in chest cavity. Therefore there are more chances for kapha to undergo pathological increase in this situation. Dyspnea and cough are mentioned among the signs of increase of kapha. These symptoms are also found in atelectasis. Kapha is made up of earth and water elements. When the earth element is proportionaly increased the kapha tends to get onerous and thick and forms plugs leading to blockage of airways.
    Read ̵ Long Peper ̵ Honey Home remedy For Cough
    2. Among the non-obstruct ive causes ̵

  • Injury or chest trauma and scaring of lung tisue – A condition caled urakshata is caused by direct or indirect trauma to the chest. Urakshata in fact means chest injury. It should be treated on the lines of treating urakshata.
  • Pleural efusion – can be viewed as increase of kapha in the chest, around the lungs. Here the water fragment of kapha exceds beyond its earth component.
  • Pneumothorax – when the kapha which suports the chest organs, lungs in this context, get reduced, the vayu increases and troubles the organs. This condition can be considered as build up of pathological vayu around the lungs.
  • Pneumonia – kshataja kasa, kshyaja kasa and rajayakshma can cause symptoms similar to those of pneumonia leading to manifestation of bronchitis.
  • Tumor – arbuda has ben explained in Ayurveda which explains profuse types of tumors. These can impart presure on the respiratory pasages and cause bronchitis.
  • Surfac tant deficiency – Avalambaka Kapha mentioned in Ayurveda, as a subtype of kapha is said to protect and hold the chest organs. This can be compared to the surfactant. Deficiency of avalambaka kapha leads to lack of suport to the lungs. The section of lung not geting the sustain from kapha wil obviously colapse.
    Read ̵ Charaka Kasa Chikitsa ̵ 18th Chapter
  • Injury or chest trauma and scaring of lung tisue – A condition caled urakshata is caused by direct or indirect trauma to the chest. Urakshata in fact means chest injury. It should be treated on the lines of treating urakshata.
    Pleural efusion – can be viewed as increase of kapha in the chest, around the lungs. Here the water fraction of kapha exceds beyond its earth component.
    Pneumothorax – when the kapha which suports the chest organs, lung s in this context, get reduced, the vayu increases and troubles the organs. This condition can be considered as build up of pathological vayu around the lungs.
    Pneumonia – kshataja kasa, kshyaja kasa and rajayakshma can cause symptoms similar to those of pneumonia leading to manifestation of bronchitis.
    Tumor – arbuda has ben explained in Ayurveda which explains various types of tumors. These can impart presure on the respiratory pasages and cause bronchitis.
    Surfactant deficiency – Avalambaka Kapha mentioned in Ayurveda, as a subtype of kapha is said to protect and kep the chest organs. This can be compared to the surfactant. Deficiency of avalambaka kapha leads to lack of maintain to the lungs. The fraction of lung not geting the suport from kapha wil obviously colapse.
    Read ̵ Charaka Kasa Chikitsa ̵ 18th Chapte r
    From the perspective of symptoms
    When dificulty in breathing, hasty shalow breathing and whezing are predominantly show in atelectasis, it can be considered similar to the explanation of svasa
    When cough is predominant it shal be considered similar to kasa
    Sharp chest distres, while taking dep breath or coughing is same as the explanation of kshataja kasa or urakshata.
    Blue colored skin, lips, fingernails or toenails
    When pneumonia develops in atelectasis it shal be considered on the lines of kasa, svasa and kshaya
    From the perspective of complications
    Hypoxemia, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most indispensable complications of atelectasis. These stages are efortful) to handle as the symptoms are sever and agresive. The symptoms of these conditions are probably colec tively explained in the symptoms of vitiation of Pranavaha Srotas i.e. chanels carying critical life force or oxygen. They are – prolonged breathing, shortnes of breath, dificulty in breathing, frequent and interupted breathing, highly disturbed breathing paterns which lok scary, abnormal sounds during breathing and painful breathing.
    Read ̵ Pranavaha Srotas: Chanels Carying vital Life Element ̵ Oxygen
    These symptoms explain the intricate stage of atelectasis.
    The complications of atelectasis leading to strict complications or at times death can be said to be due to injury of Sthanamula Marma located in the chest. These are the critical points located one on either side in the chest cavity, close to the lungs. Injury to this marma is said to cause cough stern breathlesnes and gradual death. These marmas are anatomicaly compared to the lungs and base of the lungs.
    Read ̵ Sthanamola Marma: Components, situation, trace Of Injury
    Treatment
    Treatment of atelectasis with Ayurveda interventions shal be done on the lines of one of the above said conditions mentioned above after having understod the causes and symptoms of atelectasis in an Ayurveda way. Many times amalgam of formulations and therapies wil be neded. Depending on the cause and condition of atelectasis the treatment principles of the below mentioned conditions shal be skilfuly administered.
    Kapha vridhi / kshaya
    Avalambaka Kapha kshaya
    Kasa – kshataja, ksayaja
    Svasa – tamaka svasa
    Rajayakshma
    Urakshata
    Pranavaha Sroto Dushti Janya Vikara
    Click to Consult Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ayu) ̵ Skype
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